SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission file number: 0-26642
MYRIAD GENETICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
320 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (801) 584-3600
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
|Title of each class||Trading|
|Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock, $0.01 par value||MYGN||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||x||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☐||Smaller reporting company||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate), computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold on June 30, 2022 was $1,465,095,487.
As of February 23, 2023 the registrant had 81,223,713 shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents (or parts thereof) are incorporated by reference into the following parts of this Form 10-K: Certain information required in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated from the Registrant's Proxy Statement, to be filed no later than 120 days following December 31, 2022, for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders expected to be held on June 1, 2023.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The Securities and Exchange Commission encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so that investors can better understand a company’s future prospects and make informed investment decisions. This Annual Report on Form 10‑K contains such “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
Words such as “may,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expects,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seek,” “could,” “continue,” “likely,” “will,” “strategy” and “goal” and words and terms of similar substance used in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance identify forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are management’s present expectations of future events and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, conditions, and events to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. These risks include, but are not limited to:
•the risk that sales and profit margins of our existing tests may decline or that we may not be able to operate our business on a profitable basis;
•risks related to our ability to achieve certain revenue growth targets and generate sufficient revenue from our existing product portfolio or in launching and commercializing new tests to be profitable;
•risks related to changes in governmental or private insurers’ coverage and reimbursement levels for our tests or our ability to obtain reimbursement for our new tests at comparable levels to our existing tests;
•risks related to increased competition and the development of new competing tests;
•continued uncertainties associated with COVID-19, including its possible effects on our operations and the demand for our products;
•the risk that we may be unable to develop or achieve commercial success for additional tests in a timely manner, or at all;
•the risk that we may not successfully develop new markets or channels for our tests, including our ability to successfully generate substantial revenue outside the United States;
•the risk that licenses to the technology underlying our tests and any future tests are terminated or cannot be maintained on satisfactory terms;
•risks related to delays or other problems with constructing and operating our laboratory testing facilities;
•risks related to public concern over genetic testing in general or our tests in particular;
•risks related to regulatory requirements or enforcement in the United States and foreign countries and changes in the structure of the healthcare system or healthcare payment systems;
•risks related to our ability to obtain new corporate collaborations or licenses and acquire or develop new technologies or businesses on satisfactory terms, if at all;
•risks related to our ability to successfully integrate and derive benefits from any technologies or businesses that we license, acquire or develop;
•the risk that we are not able to secure additional financing to fund our business, if needed, in a timely manner or on favorable terms, if it all;
•risks related to our projections about the potential market opportunity for our current and future products;
•the risk that we or our licensors may be unable to protect or that third parties will infringe the proprietary technologies underlying our tests;
•the risk of patent-infringement claims or challenges to the validity of our patents;
•risks related to changes in intellectual property laws covering our tests, or patents or enforcement, in the United States and foreign countries;
•risks related to security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions, including from cyberattacks;
•risks of new, changing and competitive technologies in the United States and internationally and that we may not be able to keep pace with the rapid technology changes in our industry, or properly leverage new technologies to achieve or sustain competitive advantages in our products;
•the risk that we may be unable to comply with financial operating covenants under our credit or lending agreements;
•risks related to our inability to achieve and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting;
•risks related to current and future investigations, claims or lawsuits, including derivative claims, product or professional liability claims, and risks related to the amount of our insurance coverage limits and scope of insurance coverage with respect thereto; and
•other factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any document incorporated by reference might not occur. Stockholders are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise except as required by law. All forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.
“We,” “us,” “our,” “Myriad” and the “Company” as used in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K refer to Myriad Genetics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries.
Myriad, the Myriad logo, BRACAnalysis, BRACAnalysis CDx, Colaris, ColarisAP, MyRisk, Myriad myRisk, MyRisk Hereditary Cancer, myChoice, Tumor BRACAnalysis CDx, MyChoice CDx, Prequel, Prequel with Amplify, Amplify, Foresight, Precise, FirstGene, SneakPeek, SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test, Health.Illuminated., RiskScore, Prolaris, GeneSight, and EndoPredict are registered trademarks or trademarks of Myriad. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may appear without the ®, ™ or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, trade names and service marks.
Market, Industry and Other Data
This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain estimates, forecasts, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and relevant markets, including data regarding the estimated size of relevant markets, patient populations, and the perceptions and preferences of patients and physicians regarding certain therapies, as well as data regarding market research and estimates. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources that we believe to be reliable. In some cases, we may not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. In that regard, when we refer to one or more sources of this type of data in any paragraph, you should assume that other data of this type appearing in the same paragraph is derived from the same sources, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
Item 1. BUSINESS
Overview and Mission
We are a leading genetic testing and precision medicine company dedicated to advancing health and well-being for all. We provide insights that help people take control of their health and enable healthcare providers to better detect, treat, and prevent disease. We develop and offer tests that help assess the risk of developing disease or disease progression and guide treatment decisions across medical specialties where genetic insights can significantly improve patient care and lower health care costs.
Our Business Strategy
Personalized genetic data, digital, and virtual consumer trends are converging to change traditional models of care. We believe significant growth opportunities exist to help patient populations with pressing health care needs through innovative genetic and precision medicine solutions and services. Our focus is on organic growth, deployment of capital, including through opportunistic acquisitions, and the launch of new products. We are focusing our efforts in three key areas where we have specialized products, capabilities, and expertise: Oncology, Women's Health, and Mental Health. We believe our path to organic growth is driven by articulating our clinical differentiation, advancing a new commercial model in our Oncology and Women's Health businesses to reach a broader set of physicians and patients, raising awareness with patients who we believe would benefit from testing, and innovation that improves clinical outcomes, ease of use, and access. By investing in tech-enabled commercial tools, new laboratory facilities, and advanced automation, we believe we will be able to reduce complexity and cost. With a foundation of financial, commercial, operational, and technological strength, we plan to launch new products and capabilities in 2023, such as our unified ordering portal, FirstGene, and, on a research use only basis, Precise minimal residual disease (MRD), which we expect will help accelerate our growth. We intend to develop and enhance our products to support growth, improve patient and provider experience, and reach more patients of all backgrounds. We are committed to disciplined management of a key set of initiatives to fulfill our mission and drive long-term growth and profitability.
Our tests are designed to analyze genes and their expression levels to assess an individual’s risk for developing disease, determine a patient’s likelihood of responding to a particular drug, assess a patient’s risk of disease progression, or identify factors which could lead to serious conditions in pregnancy. We focus our efforts in the following three key areas where we have specialized products, capabilities, and expertise:
Oncology: Clarifying cancer treatment with genetic insights and companion diagnostic tests that are designed to work with corresponding drugs and treatments.
Women's Health: Providing genetic insights for women of all ancestries, assessing cancer risk, and offering prenatal testing solutions.
Mental Health: Providing genetic insights to help physicians understand how genetic alterations impact patient response to anti-depressants and other drugs.
The following tests are included in the key areas outlined above:
|Oncology ||Women's Health ||Mental Health |
Descriptions of our tests are as follows:
MyRisk™ Hereditary Cancer Test: DNA sequencing test for assessing the risks for hereditary cancers. Our MyRisk test is designed to determine a patient’s hereditary cancer risk for breast, ovarian, colorectal, endometrial, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate, and gastric cancers. The test analyzes 48 separate genes to look for deleterious mutations that put a patient at a substantially higher risk than the general population for developing one or more of these cancers. All 48 genes in the panel are well documented in clinical literature for the role they play in hereditary cancer and have been shown to have actionable clinical interventions for the patient to facilitate earlier cancer detection, lower disease risk or reduce risk of cancer recurrence. The MyRisk Genetic Test Result and MyRisk Management Tool® summarize medical society guidelines for managing a patient with a genetic mutation in view of their personal and family history of cancer. MyRisk also includes RiskScore® for all ancestries. RiskScore incorporates the patient’s own clinical risk factors, family history, and unique genetic, ancestry-informed breast cancer risk markers and provides a personalized five-year and lifetime assessment of the risk of developing breast cancer—regardless of ancestry.
BRACAnalysis CDx® Germline Companion Diagnostic Test: DNA sequencing test to help determine the most beneficial therapy for patients with metastatic breast, ovarian, metastatic pancreatic, or metastatic prostate cancer with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA variants. Results of our BRACAnalysis CDx test are used as an aid to identify patients who are eligible for treatment with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Currently, we are the only laboratory with an FDA-approved test for this indication and have received approvals from the FDA in ovarian cancer, metastatic breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and advanced prostate cancer. The test is an in vitro diagnostic device intended for the qualitative detection and classification of variants in the protein coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes using genomic DNA obtained from whole blood specimens collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).
MyChoice® CDx Companion Diagnostic Test: tumor test that determines homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) status in patients with ovarian cancer. This FDA-approved test helps provide information on the magnitude of benefit for PARP inhibitor therapy. HRD status is determined using two independent methods: BRCA1 and BRCA2 status that encompasses sequence variants and large rearrangements, and Genomic Instability Status (GIS) encompassing loss of heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions across the entire genome. We believe that the combination of these methods is a more comprehensive way to measure HRD status, versus either one alone.
Prolaris® Prostate Cancer Prognostic Test: RNA expression tumor analysis for assessing the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Our Prolaris test is a gene expression assay that assesses whether a patient is likely to have a slow growing, indolent form of prostate cancer that can be safely monitored through active surveillance, or a more aggressive form of the disease that may warrant aggressive intervention such as a radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. The Prolaris test was developed to improve physicians’ ability to predict disease outcome and thereby to optimize patient treatment.
EndoPredict® Breast Cancer Prognostic Test: RNA expression test for assessing the aggressiveness of breast cancer. The EndoPredict test is a next-generation RNA expression test used to determine which women with breast cancer may benefit from chemotherapy. EndoPredict predicts the likelihood of metastases to help guide treatment decisions for chemotherapy and extended endocrine therapy. EndoPredict has been shown to accurately predict risk of distant recurrence in Her 2-, ER+, node negative, and node positive breast cancer patients with no confusing intermediate results in 13 published clinical studies with more than 2,200 patients and is Conformitè Europëenne (CE) marked, which signifies European certification for clinical use.
Precise™ Tumor Molecular Profile Test: a tumor profile test offered as part of Precise™ Oncology Solutions, a comprehensive solution for advanced precision oncology. Precise™ Oncology Solutions combines our leading germline hereditary cancer tests (MyRisk/BRACAnalysis CDx), our HRD companion diagnostic test (MyChoice CDx), and a comprehensive genetic tumor panel performed by Intermountain Precision Genomics, a service of Intermountain Healthcare. We believe Precise Oncology Solutions will help providers determine a clear, integrated, and personalized treatment plan for patients with cancer.
Prequel® Prenatal Screen: a non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) test conducted using maternal blood to screen for severe chromosomal disorders in a fetus. The Prequel test uses whole genome sequencing to assess for trisomies and monosomies in all 23 chromosomal pairs including the sex chromosomes, along with microdeletions associated with common genetic diseases. Prequel has a low test failure rate at less than 1 in 1,000 patients and has been validated in multiple clinical studies to be highly accurate. Prequel uses AMPLIFY™ technology that raises NIPS test performance most significantly for the types of patients who have traditionally had test failures on standard NIPS tests due to certain clinical factors. AMPLIFY is the only NIPS technology that substantially reduces low fetal fraction test failures in order to allow for equity in care across all patients, regardless of body mass index (BMI), race, or ethnicity.
Foresight® Carrier Screen: a prenatal test for future parents to assess their risk of passing on a recessive genetic condition to their offspring. The Foresight test screens for carrier status of up to 176 genes associated with serious and prevalent inherited conditions. The test has been shown to have a detection rate of 99% across all ethnicities. Studies have shown that with prior knowledge of recessive genetic conditions, 76% of patients took preventive actions such as in-vitro fertilization with pre-implantation genetic testing to reduce the risk of having an affected offspring.
SneakPeek® Early Gender DNA Test: a non-invasive blood test that predicts the gender of a fetus as early as six weeks. Innovative cell free DNA technology and precise algorithms in the SneakPeek test are used to screen for a single, Y chromosome marker in the material blood sample. If Y chromosome markers are found in the mother's blood, the baby is male. If no Y chromosome markers are detected, the baby is female. The SneakPeek test is able to determine fetal sex as early as six weeks of gestation with 99% accuracy.
GeneSight® Psychotropic Mental Health Medication Test: DNA genotyping test to aid psychotropic drug selection for patients suffering from depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other mental health conditions. The GeneSight test provides healthcare professionals with information about which medications may require dose adjustments, may be less likely to work for a patient, or may have an increased risk of side effects based on a patient's genetic makeup. Genesight covers 64 medications commonly prescribed for depression, anxiety, ADHD, and other psychiatric conditions. Because genes influence the way a person’s body responds to specific medications, the medications may work differently for each person. Using DNA gathered with a simple cheek swab, the GeneSight test analyzes a patient’s genes and provides individualized information to help healthcare providers select medications that better match the patient’s genetic variations. Multiple clinical studies have shown that when clinicians used the GeneSight test to help guide treatment decisions in major depressive disorders, patients were more likely to respond to treatment compared to standard of care.
Sales and Marketing
We sell our tests primarily through our own sales force and marketing efforts in the United States, Japan, Germany, and France, and we service additional global accounts through indirect sales channels. Our U.S. sales force is comprised of approximately 500 individuals across our dedicated sales channels. We continue to optimize our sales and marketing channels through increased digital marketing, direct to patient marketing, enhanced virtual sales tools, and inside sales teams to drive efficiency in our sales model. For example, in 2022, we focused more on digital engagement and inside sales with our GeneSight test, which contributed to 36% year-over-year growth in product revenue. Our inside sales team focuses on a broader base of leads, freeing up the field sales team to target high potential clinical leads. We plan to integrate elements of this new sales and marketing model into our Women's Health channels and eventually into our other product lines, which we believe can be more cost effective in terms of customer acquisition costs. Additionally, our recent acquisition of Gateway Genomics, LLC (Gateway), which offers a home-test prenatal kit, may provide us with greater direct to consumer access and create opportunities to cross-sell our other Women's Health products. We believe we will be better able to execute on our strategies and fulfill our mission by engaging with providers and patients in new ways.
Research and Development
Our products stem from expert and innovative investigation into the biological underpinnings of serious human disease. We plan to continue to use our proprietary DNA sequencing and RNA expression technologies, including our supporting bioinformatics and robotic technologies, in an effort to efficiently discover and validate important biomarkers. We embed these biomarkers along with relevant clinical information in complex, proprietary tests that are highly accurate and informative, and intended to help physicians better manage their patients’ health care. We believe that our technologies provide us with a significant competitive advantage and the potential for the continued development of numerous product opportunities. For the year ended December 31, 2022, the year ended December 31, 2021, the six-month transition period ended December 31, 2020, and the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, we incurred research and development expense of $85.4 million, $81.9 million, $35.8 million and $77.2 million, respectively.
Industry and Competition
Healthcare is evolving to be more patient-centered and value-based. Patients, healthcare providers, payors and health systems are looking to apply the power of genetic insights, molecular diagnostics, and precision medicine to advance care, improve access, and lower cost. We believe key industry trends include:
•accelerating shifts in consumer engagement, early detection, home-based care models, the rise of low-cost sequencing, telemedicine, and virtual care;
•disruption in the way outpatient care is delivered as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with broadened awareness of the vital role of diagnostic testing;
•expanding access to genetic insights, particularly among underserved populations with increased focus on health equity, reducing disparities in health care outcomes, and ensuring increased access for challenged communities;
•broader, more innovative use of large data sets and analytics; and
•growth in personalized medicine and the interest in new partnership models to advance companion diagnostics and serve patients with specific treatments based on their own genetic makeup and biology.
We believe these market trends create new opportunities to position us for organic growth and commercial success through the launch of new products and the enhancement of existing products. Our focus is on articulating the clinical differentiation of our products and our commitment to being a reliable testing partner to patients and providers and innovative science that improves health outcomes, access for all, and ease of experience in the testing process. We expect to use our ability to innovate not only in research, development, and technology, but also in go-to-market approaches, commercial capabilities, and tech-enabled applications to adapt quickly to customer preferences and market dynamics.
In oncology, we offer testing for patients who have cancer and companion diagnostic tests that work with corresponding drugs and treatments. Our competitors in the oncology market include Invitae Corporation, Ambry Genetics Corporation, Quest Diagnostics Incorporated, Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Exact Sciences Corporation, Foundation Medicine, Inc. and other commercial and academic laboratories.
As a leader in genetic testing and precision medicine, we provide insights that help people take control of their health, and enable healthcare providers to better detect, treat, and prevent disease. We believe that the key opportunities to grow our Oncology business are our expansion of companion diagnostics, market expansion through new clinical guidelines, and providing new offerings. For example, in the first quarter of 2022, we launched the Precise Tumor Molecular Profile Test in partnership with Intermountain Precision Genomics and Illumina and as part of Precise Oncology Solutions, a differentiated, comprehensive solution for advanced precision oncology. In March 2022, we received FDA approval for the BRACAnalysis CDx test for use as a companion diagnostic to identify patients with germline BRCA-mutated (gRBCAm) HER2 negative, high-risk early-stage breast cancer who may benefit from Lynparza (olaparib). We currently offer our FDA-approved BRACAnalysis CDx test as a companion diagnostic for the prediction of response to PARP inhibitors. Currently, we are the only laboratory with an FDA-approved germline test for this indication and have received approvals from the FDA in ovarian cancer, metastatic breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and advanced prostate cancer. In August 2022, we received approval from the Japanese regulatory agencies for the use of BRACAnalysis Diagnostic System as a companion diagnostic to identify patients with germline BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm) and HER2-negative high-risk recurrent breast cancer who may benefit from Lynparza (olaparib).
In late 2023, we also plan to add, also in partnership with Intermountain Precision Genomics, a new liquid biopsy therapy selection test called Precise Liquid to the comprehensive Precise Oncology Solutions offering. We are also developing Precise MRD, a monitoring test based on whole genome sequencing to deeply interrogate tumors, detect cancer recurrence earlier, and help guide treatment decisions.
In the women’s health market, we serve women assessing their genetic predisposition to cancer, offer prenatal tests for the assessment of fetal chromosomal disorders, and screen prospective parents for recessive genetic conditions that can be passed on to their offspring. We also offer the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test which can reveal a baby's gender as early as six weeks into pregnancy. We compete with multiple companies, including large national reference laboratories, specialty laboratories, academic/university laboratories, and kit-based products with our MyRisk, Foresight, Prequel and SneakPeek tests. Our competitors include Invitae Corporation, Natera, Inc., Ambry Genetics Corporation, a subsidiary of Konica Minolta Inc., Quest Diagnostics Incorporated, Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, and Peekaboo Early Detection Gender DNA Test. We compete mainly based on our test breadth and accuracy, equity in care capability, and our commercial scale.
We see opportunities to improve both our economics and the customer experience on these products. We remain focused on the reimbursement for carrier screening and finding streamlined patient payment models. We are expanding new sales and marketing channels to interact with patients and allow customers greater access to our products. For example, with our recent acquisition of Gateway and its home-based SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test, we have greater access to consumers who are pregnant and opportunities to convert these customers into prenatal testing patients as well as cancer screening patients. We also plan to improve customer experience with our new online unified ordering portal to engage with patients and physicians, our cost estimators across our product lines, our remote in-market customer service teams, and artificial intelligence-based tools for interacting with patients.
We expect to further simplify and advance prenatal care with the launch of FirstGene™, a comprehensive prenatal screening test. FirstGene combines the power of our Prequel NIPS with AMPLIFY technology with our Foresight Carrier Screen into a new 4-in-1 prenatal offering for NIPS, carrier screen, fetal recessive status, and feto-maternal blood compatibility. This new test, which is expected to launch in the third quarter of 2023, is designed to streamline the testing process and simplify workflow with a single maternal blood draw while providing early insight on the fetus with improved sensitivity for all pregnancies, helping to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis. We recently announced our support for the recent guideline update by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), which reaffirmed the clinical value of NIPS to screen for a range of chromosomal abnormalities. ACMG continues to recommend offering screening for common trisomies (on chromosomes 13, 18, and 21) in all pregnancies, and recently updated guidance that provides a strong recommendation for offering screening for sex-chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) and conditional support for offering screening for 22q microdeletion syndrome. As part of the NIPS within FirstGene, both SCAs and 22q are expected to be available as additional opt-in screening.
In mental health, we help physicians understand how genetic alterations may impact patient response to antidepressants and other drugs. We believe our GeneSight Psychotropic Mental Health Medication Test meets a significant unmet clinical need and is a leading product to help physicians anticipate patient response to psychotropic drugs, the selection of which has historically been done through trial and error based approaches. The test is clinically proven to improve response rates in patients compared to standard of care. Our competitors in this market include Genomind, Quest Diagnostics Incorporated, and Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings.
Key opportunities to grow our business in this market include growing awareness of pharmacogenomic opportunities for mental health treatment and driving physician adoption and utilization of our product to help guide treatment options. We are broadening access to GeneSight among front-line providers of mental health treatment, including primary care physicians and nurse practitioners who treat the majority of patients suffering from depression and anxiety, and through the expansion of sales and digital marketing capabilities. Moving forward, we are exploring the extension of GeneSight in other indications as well as other areas such as postpartum depression through our Women's Health business.
We have historically experienced seasonality in our testing business. The quarter ended December 31st is generally strong as we typically experience an increase in volumes from patients who have met their annual insurance deductible. Conversely, in the quarter ended March 31st we typically experience a decrease in volumes due to the annual reset of patient deductibles. Additionally, the volume of testing is negatively impacted by the summer season, which is generally reflected in the quarter ended September 30th.
Human Capital Management
Our mission is to advance health and well-being for all by empowering individuals with vital insights to help them take control of their health and enabling healthcare providers to better detect, treat and prevent disease. We believe the success of our mission depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. Our key human capital management objectives are to recruit, retain and motivate the exceptional people needed to carry out our mission. To support these objectives and help our employees balance their work and personal lives, we maintain a flexible work environment and competitive compensation and benefits programs.
As of December 31, 2022, we have approximately 2,600 full-time equivalent employees. Most of our employees are engaged directly in customer experience, research, technology, development, production, and sales and marketing. Our employees are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I): Our DE&I objective is to make Myriad a place where all employees have a sense of belonging. Myriad supports a culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion aligned with our company mission, vision, and values to drive company performance by creating opportunities and experiences for learning, development, and a sense of belonging for all employees. Our DE&I plan is focused on our people, mission, and community. We have three employee-led resource groups (ERGs) that represent and support three diverse communities in our workforce: the Pride Alliance Group, the Black Employees at Myriad Group and the Women's Leadership Group. These ERGs mentor, foster, encourage, and inspire employees in all stages of their careers by providing access to senior leadership, peer groups, mentoring, and other valuable resources to help them pursue their career ambitions.
As of December 31, 2022, 62% of our employees are women and women hold 46% of Myriad leadership roles (vice president and above). One third of the members of our Board of Directors are women, including the chairperson, and 44% of our Board members come from diverse gender, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.
Compensation, Health, Wellness, Family Resources, and Other Benefits: Our compensation program is designed to attract and reward talented individuals who possess the skills necessary to support our business objectives, assist in the achievement of our strategic goals and create long-term value for our stockholders. We provide competitive salaries, stock ownership opportunities, and enhanced incentive and bonus programs. We also provide an expansive benefit offering including medical, dental and vision health care coverage, insurance and disability coverage, 401(k) investment plans with Company matching, tax advantaged savings accounts, paid time off and leaves of absence, parental leave, family formation benefits, employee assistance programs, community outreach programs, training and development opportunities, and wellness programs. We provide added work life balance to our employees through hybrid work arrangements. We also provide free mental health resources for employees and their dependents.
Career Development and Training: We offer several career development and training opportunities to our employees, including a curriculum of Company-sponsored technical, business and leadership courses, on-the-job training and a support network to all new employees, and tuition reimbursement for approved external training and educational pursuits.
Oversight and Management: We regularly conduct surveys to seek feedback from our employees on a variety of topics, including employee engagement, Company strengths and focus areas, and culture drivers. The results are reviewed by our Board of Directors, the Compensation and Human Capital Committee and senior leadership, who analyze areas of progress or deterioration and prioritize actions and activities in response to this feedback to drive meaningful improvements in employee engagement.
Social Responsibility and Community: At Myriad, corporate responsibility plays an important role in our approach to developing valuable and transformative diagnostic tests across major diseases to improve patients' lives. We believe that our corporate social responsibility programs build greater value for our patients, healthcare professionals and stockholders, support and improve the communities where we live and work, and empower our employees to become more engaged in the well-being of their own communities.
The corporate social responsibility programs at Myriad align with a clearly defined set of strategic priorities including:
•Philanthropy: We provide financial support to nonprofit organizations and share the expertise of our employees in the communities where we operate.
•Advocacy: We collaborate with and support key patient advocacy and support organizations where we can make a positive difference in addressing complex health challenges, providing and improving the quality of life for patients.
•Scholarship: We provide financial support for academic scholarship and education at both the undergraduate and post-graduate levels and contribute to advancing education and training for women and minorities in medicine and science.
•Patient Assistance: We are working to improve overall health care quality and increase access to diagnostic testing for uninsured and underinsured populations by offering robust financial assistance and free testing to those in need.
•Environmental: As described further below, we have created a Green Team to foster environmental and sustainability stewardship.
Environmental and Sustainability
We strive to do business in ways that protect both the health and safety of our employees and the world in which we operate by establishing, promoting, maintaining and improving a culture of sustainability and environmental responsibility. In order to achieve our objectives, we have increased our focus on environmental and sustainability efforts by adopting a Sustainability Strategy and Vision Statement that we are working towards fully implementing. The Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee of our Board of Directors is responsible for reviewing and evaluating our environmental, climate, safety, social and other corporate responsibility strategies, practices, and initiatives. We have also formed an internal Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Committee, led by our President and Chief Executive Officer, and created a Green Team in an effort to develop and maintain sustainable business practices. For more information on our approach to sustainability, please refer to our 2021 Environmental, Social and Governance Report, which is available on our website. Our 2022 Environmental, Social and Governance Report is expected to be released later this year.
Patents and Proprietary Rights
We own or have license rights to various issued patents and patent applications in the United States and foreign countries. These patents and patent applications relate to a variety of subject matter, including diagnostic biomarkers, gene expression signatures, assays, assay reagents, informatics and data analytics, methods for determining genetic predisposition, methods for disease diagnosis, methods for determining disease progression, methods for determining disease treatment, and general molecular diagnostic techniques. For some of the patent assets, we hold rights through exclusive or non-exclusive license agreements. Material issued patent assets relating to our tests that generate material revenue are described in the table below, along with any related pending applications. These issued patents are expected to begin expiring on the respective dates noted below and any related applications, if issued as patents and depending on term adjustments or terminal disclaimers, if applicable, are expected to have similar expiration timeframes. These patents and applications contain multiple claims including but not limited to those claims described below.
|Prolaris Prostate Cancer Prognostic Test|
We own or hold an exclusive license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions relating to Prolaris® testing.
|These issued U.S. patents have terms expected to begin expiring in 2030.||Claims relating to biomarkers, kits, systems and methods for detecting, diagnosing, prognosing and selecting therapy for prostate cancer.|
|EndoPredict Breast Cancer Prognostic Test|
We own or hold an exclusive license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S., Europe and other jurisdictions relating to EndoPredict® testing.
|These issued patents have terms expected to begin expiring in 2031.||Claims relating to biomarkers, kits, systems and methods for prognosing and selecting therapy for breast cancer.|
|MyChoice CDx Companion Diagnostic Test|
We own or hold an exclusive license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions relating to MyChoice® CDx testing.
|These issued patents have terms expected to expire in 2031.||Claims relating to biomarkers, kits, systems and methods for detecting homologous recombination deficiency and selecting therapy based on such detection.|
|GeneSight Psychotropic Mental Health Medication Test|
We own or hold an exclusive license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions relating to GeneSight® testing.
|These issued patents have terms expected to begin expiring in 2024.||Claims relating to biomarkers, kits, systems and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms and selecting and/or optimizing therapy based on such detection.|
|Foresight Carrier Screen|
We own or hold an exclusive license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions that relate to laboratory and informatic methods used to enhance Foresight® testing.
|These issued patents have terms expected to begin expiring in 2032.||Claims relating to systems and methods for detecting genetic sequences.|
|Prequel Prenatal Screen||We own or hold a license to one or more issued patents and pending patent applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions that relate to laboratory and informatic methods used to enhance Prequel™ testing.||These issued patents have terms expected to begin expiring in 2032.||Claims relating to systems and methods for detecting genetic sequences.|
We intend to seek patent protection in the United States and major foreign jurisdictions for these and other inventions which we believe are patentable and where we believe our interests would be best served by seeking patent protection. However, any patents issued to us or our licensors may not afford meaningful protection for our products or technology or may be subsequently circumvented, invalidated or narrowed or found unenforceable. Any patent applications which we have filed, or will file, or to which we have licensed or will license rights may not issue, and patents that do issue may not contain commercially valuable claims. In addition, others may obtain patents having claims which cover aspects of our tests or processes which are necessary for or useful to the development, use or performance of our products. Should any other group obtain patent protection with respect to our discoveries, our commercialization of our tests could be limited or prohibited.
Others may offer genomic laboratory testing services which may infringe patents we control. We may seek to negotiate a license to use our patent rights or decide to seek enforcement of our patent rights through litigation. Patent litigation is expensive, the outcome is often uncertain and we may not be able to enforce our patent rights against others.
Our tests and processes may also conflict with patents which have been or may be granted to competitors, academic institutions or others. In addition, third parties could bring legal actions against us seeking to invalidate our owned or licensed patents, claiming damages, or seeking to enjoin clinical testing, development and marketing of our tests or processes. If any of these actions are successful, in addition to any potential liability for damages, we could lose patent coverage for our tests, be required to cease the infringing activity or obtain a license in order to continue to develop or market the relevant test or process. We may not prevail in any such action, and any license required under any such patent may not be made available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our failure to maintain patent protection for our tests and processes or to obtain a license to any technology that we may require to commercialize our tests and technologies could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We also rely upon unpatented proprietary technology, and in the future may determine in some cases that our interests would be better served by protecting certain technologies as trade secrets or through confidentiality agreements rather than patents or licenses. These include some of our genomic, proteomic, RNA expression, mutation analysis, robotic and bioinformatic technologies which may be used in discovering and characterizing new biomarkers and ultimately used in the development or analysis of tests. We also maintain a database of gene mutations and their status as either harmful or benign for some of our tests. To further protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we require that our employees and consultants enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements. However, those confidentiality and invention assignment agreements may not provide us with adequate protection. We may not be able to protect our rights to such unpatented proprietary technology and others may independently develop substantially equivalent technologies. If we are unable to obtain strong proprietary rights to our processes or tests, competitors may be able to market competing processes and tests.
We are a party to license agreements which give us the rights to use certain technologies in the research, development, testing processes, and commercialization of our tests. These licenses generally end on the expiration of the last to expire patent rights covered by the applicable license agreement. We may not be able to continue to license these technologies on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, each license may be terminated by the licensor in the event of an uncured breach by us of any material term of the applicable license agreement. Patents underlying our license agreements may not afford meaningful protection for our technology or tests or may be subsequently circumvented, invalidated or narrowed, or found unenforceable. Our failure to maintain rights to this technology could have a material adverse effect on our business. The table below lists important licenses to technology that is incorporated into tests that generate material revenue:
|Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (Mayo)||Exclusive world-wide license to certain rights of Mayo in intellectual property relating to our GeneSight testing.||We pay Mayo a royalty based on net sales of our GeneSight test.||We do not anticipate that this license will expire until 2024.|
|University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC)|
Exclusive world-wide right to certain rights of UTMDACC in intellectual property relating to our MyChoice® HRD testing.
We pay UTMDACC a royalty based on net sales of our MyChoice® HRD test.
|We do not anticipate that this license will expire until 2032.|
|Children’s Medical Center in Boston (CMCC)|
Exclusive world-wide right to certain rights of CMCC in intellectual property relating to our MyChoice® HRD testing.
We pay CMCC a royalty based on net sales of our MyChoice® HRD test.
|We do not anticipate that this license will expire until 2032.|
|Institut Curie and INSERM (INSERM)|
Exclusive world-wide right to certain rights of INSERM in intellectual property relating to our MyChoice® HRD testing.
We pay INSERM a royalty based on net sales of our MyChoice® HRD test.
|We do not anticipate that this license will expire until 2032.|
|Illumina, Inc.||Non-exclusive license to certain rights held by or licensed to Illumina to intellectual property relating to non-invasive prenatal screening and the Prequel test.||We pay Illumina a royalty based on the volume of Prequel testing administered by us.||License runs for the term of the Illumina agreement and, in any event, expires upon expiration of the last to expire patent right covered by the Illumina agreement.|
Our operations are regulated by federal, state and foreign governmental authorities. Failure to comply with the applicable laws and regulations can subject us to repayment of amounts previously paid to us, significant civil and criminal penalties, loss of licensure, certification, or accreditation, or exclusion from state and federal health care programs. The significant areas of regulation are summarized below.
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 and State Regulation
Each of our clinical laboratories must hold certain federal, state and local licenses, certifications, and permits to conduct our business. Laboratories in the United States that perform testing on human specimens for the purpose of providing information for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease are subject to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA). CLIA requires such laboratories to be certified by the federal government and mandates compliance with various operational, personnel, facilities administration, quality and proficiency testing requirements intended to ensure that testing services are accurate, reliable and timely. CLIA certification also is a prerequisite to be eligible to bill state and federal health care programs, as well as many private third-party payors, for laboratory testing services. Our laboratories in Salt Lake City, Utah, Mason, Ohio, and South San Francisco, California are CLIA certified to perform high complexity tests.
CLIA requires each of our certified laboratories to enroll in an approved proficiency testing program if performing testing in any category for which proficiency testing is required. Each of our laboratories periodically tests specimens received from an outside proficiency testing organization and then submits the results back to that organization for evaluation. If one of our laboratories fails to achieve a passing score on a proficiency test, then it may lose its right to perform testing. Further, failure to comply with other proficiency testing regulations, such as the prohibition on referral of a proficiency testing specimen to another laboratory for analysis, can result in revocation of the laboratory’s CLIA certification.
As a condition of CLIA certification, each of our laboratories is subject to survey and inspection every other year, in addition to being subject to additional random inspections. The biennial survey is conducted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), a CMS agent (typically a state agency), or a CMS-approved accreditation organization. Because our laboratories are accredited by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), which is a CMS-approved accreditation organization, they are typically subject to CAP rather than CMS inspections.
Our laboratories are licensed by the appropriate state agencies in the states in which they operate, if such licensure is required. In addition, our laboratories hold state licenses or permits, as applicable, from various states, including, but not limited to, California, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Maryland, to the extent that they accept specimens from one or more of these states, each of which requires out-of-state laboratories to obtain licensure.
If a laboratory is out of compliance with state laws or regulations governing licensed laboratories or with CLIA, penalties may include suspension, limitation or revocation of the license or CLIA certificate, assessment of financial penalties or fines, or imprisonment. Loss of a laboratory’s CLIA certificate or state license may also result in the inability to receive payments from state and federal health care programs as well as private third-party payors. We believe that we are in material compliance with CLIA and all applicable licensing laws and regulations.
Food and Drug Administration
In the United States, in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products are subject to regulation by the FDA as medical devices to the extent that they are intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, including a determination of the state of health, in order to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease. They are subject to premarket review and post-market controls that will differ depending on how the FDA classifies a specific IVD, which is further defined in FDA’s implementing regulations as a device intended for use in the collection, preparation, and examination of specimens taken from the human body. For certain types of tests known as laboratory developed tests (LDTs)—which are in vitro diagnostic tests that are designed, manufactured and used within a single laboratory—FDA regulation is less clear than for IVDs. Historically, FDA has exercised enforcement discretion for LDTs, which means that FDA generally has not enforced premarket review and other applicable FDA requirements. However, as LDTs have increased in complexity, the FDA has taken a risk-based approach to their regulation. Congress has also signaled interest in clarifying the regulatory landscape for LDTs. Most recently, reform entitled the Verifying Accurate, Leading-edge IVCT Development (VALID) Act has received bipartisan congressional support as revisions continue to be made to the bill. If enacted, clinical laboratories that develop and offer LDTs and traditional IVD medical device manufacturers would be subjected to the same regulatory oversight. The VALID Act defines both LDTs and IVDs as in vitro clinical tests (IVCT) and would establish a new regulatory framework separate and apart from the medical device framework under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) for the review and oversight of IVCTs. The proposed regulatory framework adopts various concepts from the FDCA, utilizing a risk-based approach that aims to ensure that all marketed IVCTs have a reasonable assurance of both analytical and clinical validity, and includes a proposed future user fee program for IVCTs. The VALID Act would also create a new system for clinical laboratories and hospitals to submit their clinical tests electronically to the FDA for approval, among other potentially significant changes to current regulatory requirements applicable to the lab industry as a whole. This system is aimed at reducing the amount of time that it takes for the agency to approve such tests, and it establishes a new program to expedite the development of diagnostic tests that can be used to address a current unmet need for patients. It is unclear whether the VALID Act will be passed by Congress in its current form or signed into law by the President; if enacted, however, it is expected to require clinical laboratories to spend significant time, resources, and money towards ensuring compliance.
In Vitro Diagnostics as Medical Devices
The information that must be submitted to the FDA in order to obtain clearance or approval to market a new IVD varies depending on how the device is classified by the FDA. Medical devices are classified into one of three classes on the basis of the controls deemed by the FDA to be necessary to reasonably ensure their safety and effectiveness. Class I devices are subject to general controls, including labeling, and adherence to the FDA’s quality system regulations, which are device-specific good manufacturing practices. Class II devices are subject to premarket notification, general controls and sometimes special controls, such as performance standards and post-market surveillance. Class III devices are subject to most of the previously identified requirements as well as to premarket approval. All Class I devices are exempt from premarket review, most Class II devices require 510(k) clearance, and all Class III devices must receive premarket approval before they can be sold in the United States. If a previously unclassified new medical device does not qualify for the 510(k) pathway because no predicate device to which it is substantially equivalent can be identified, the device is automatically classified into Class III. However, if such a device would be considered low or moderate risk, it may be eligible for the De Novo classification process. The De Novo classification process allows a device developer to request that the novel medical device be reclassified as either a Class I or Class II device, rather than having it regulated as a high-risk Class III device subject to the premarket approval requirements. The payment of a fee, typically adjusted annually, to the FDA is usually required when a 510(k) notification, premarket approval application, or De Novo classification request is submitted.
510(k) Premarket Notification and De Novo Classification
A 510(k) notification requires the sponsor to demonstrate that an IVD is substantially equivalent to another marketed device, termed a “predicate device,” that is legally marketed in the United States and for which a premarket approval (PMA) application was not required. A device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device if it has the same intended use and technological characteristics as the predicate; or has the same intended use but different technological characteristics, where the information submitted to the FDA does not raise new questions of safety and effectiveness and demonstrates that the device is at least as safe and effective as the legally marketed device. Clinical trials are almost always required to support a PMA application and are sometimes required for a De Novo classification request or a 510(k) premarket notification.
If the FDA determines that the applicant’s device is substantially equivalent to the identified predicate device(s), the agency will issue a 510(k) clearance letter that authorizes commercial marketing of the device for one or more specific indications for use. Requests for additional data, including clinical data, will increase the time necessary to review the notice. If the FDA believes that the IVD is not substantially equivalent to a predicate device, it will issue a “Not Substantially Equivalent” letter, stating that the new device may not be commercially distributed and designating the device as a Class III device, which will require the submission and approval of a PMA application before the new device may be marketed. Alternatively, the applicant may be able to submit a De Novo classification request to have it regulated as a Class I or Class II device. The FDA recently issued a final rule to formally codify requirements for the procedures and criteria for product developers to follow when preparing a De Novo classification request. The new Do Novo regulations became effective on January 3, 2022. Among other things, if the manufacturer seeks reclassification into Class II, the classification request must include a draft proposal for special controls that are necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device.
As an alternative to the De Novo classification process, the manufacturer could also file a reclassification petition seeking to change the automatic Class III designation of a novel post-amendment device under Section 513(f)(3) of the FDCA. The FDA can also initiate reclassification of an existing device type on its own initiative, and it recently issued a final rule to clarify the administrative process through which the agency reclassifies a medical device.
After a new medical device receives 510(k) clearance from the FDA, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, requires a new 510(k) clearance or could require the submission of a PMA application. The FDA continues to reevaluate the 510(k) pathway and other medical device programs and has taken what it describes as a risk-based approach to develop innovative regulatory policy to propose a more “contemporary” approach to the life cycle oversight of medical devices and IVDs. We cannot predict what if any additional regulatory changes will occur or how they will affect our current or future products.
The PMA process is more complex, costly and time consuming than the 510(k) process. As with a De Novo classification request, a PMA application must be supported by more detailed and comprehensive scientific evidence, including clinical data, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the IVD for its intended purpose. If the device is determined to present a “significant risk,” the sponsor may not begin a clinical trial until it submits an investigational device exemption (IDE) to the FDA and obtains approval to begin the trial.
After the PMA application is submitted, the FDA has 45 days to make a threshold determination that the PMA application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. If the PMA application is complete, the FDA will file the PMA. The FDA is subject to a performance goal review time for a PMA application that is 180 days from the date of filing, although in practice this review time is longer. Questions from the FDA, requests for additional data including additional clinical data and referrals to advisory committees may delay the process considerably. The total process may take several years and there is no guarantee that the PMA application will ever be approved. Even if approved, the FDA may limit the indications for which the device may be marketed. New PMA applications or PMA supplements may be required for modifications to the manufacturing process, labeling, device specifications, materials or design of a device that is approved through the PMA process.
Regulation of Companion Diagnostic Devices
If a sponsor or the FDA believes that a diagnostic test is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product, the sponsor of the therapeutic product will typically work with a collaborator to develop an IVD companion diagnostic device. The FDA has issued a final guidance document entitled “In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices” that is intended to assist companies developing in vitro companion diagnostic devices and companies developing therapeutic products that depend on the use of a specific in vitro companion diagnostic for the safe and effective use of the product. In the guidance, the FDA defined an IVD companion diagnostic device as a device that provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product. The FDA also noted that in some cases, if evidence is sufficient to conclude that the IVD companion diagnostic device is appropriate for use with a class of therapeutic products, the intended use/indications for use should name the therapeutic class, rather than each specific product within the class. In April 2020, FDA published another final guidance entitled “Developing and Labeling In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices for a Specific Group or Class of Oncology Therapeutic Products” that expands on the idea of a class of therapeutic products. The more recent guidance describes considerations for the development and labeling of in vitro companion diagnostic devices to support the indicated uses of multiple drug or biological oncology products, when appropriate. The FDA expects that the therapeutic sponsor will address the need for an approved or cleared IVD companion diagnostic device in its therapeutic product development plan and that, in most cases, the therapeutic product and its corresponding IVD companion diagnostic will be developed contemporaneously. To that end, the FDA has also issued draft guidance entitled “Principles for Codevelopment of an In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Device with a Therapeutic Product” to serve as a practical guide to assist therapeutic product sponsors and IVD sponsors in developing a therapeutic product and an accompanying IVD companion diagnostic, as well as draft guidance entitled “Developing and Labeling In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices for a Specific Group or Class of Oncology Therapeutic Products” to facilitate class labeling on diagnostic tests for oncology therapeutic products.
The FDA has indicated that it will apply a risk-based approach to determine the regulatory pathway for IVD companion diagnostic devices, as it does with all medical devices. This means that the regulatory pathway will depend on the level of risk to patients, based on the intended use of the IVD companion diagnostic device and the controls necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness.
If the companion diagnostic test will be used to make critical treatment decisions such as patient selection, treatment assignment, or treatment arm, it will likely be considered a significant risk device for which a clinical trial will be required. The sponsor of the IVD companion diagnostic device will be required to comply with the FDA’s IDE requirements that apply to clinical trials of significant risk devices. If the diagnostic test and the therapeutic drug are studied together to support their respective approvals, the clinical trial must meet both the IDE and investigational new drug application (IND) requirements. We expect that any IVD companion diagnostic device developed for use with drug products will utilize the PMA pathway and that a clinical trial performed under an IDE will have to be completed before the PMA application may be submitted.
We are developing companion diagnostic tests for use with drug products in development by pharmaceutical companies, such as our collaborations with pharmaceutical companies on PARP inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian, breast and other cancers. The FDA has also introduced the concept of a complementary diagnostic that it defines as a test that is not required but which provides significant information about the use of a drug. A complementary test can help guide treatment strategy and identify which patients are likely to derive the greatest benefit from therapy, and if approved by the FDA, information regarding the IVD will be included in the therapeutic product labeling. Although the FDA has not yet issued any written guidance regarding complementary diagnostics, it has approved some complementary diagnostics, including a supplementary premarket approval for BRACAnalysis CDx and MyChoice CDx as complementary diagnostic tests in ovarian cancer patients associated with enhanced progression-free survival (PFS) when used with the PARP inhibitor Zejula™ (niraparib).
In December 2014, we first obtained premarket approval for BRACAnalysis CDx, which is used as a companion diagnostic test to identify ovarian cancer patients who may benefit from AstraZeneca’s PARP inhibitor Lynparza™ (olaparib). Since then, other indications for BRACAnalysis CDx in ovarian, breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer have received supplemental PMA approval as a companion diagnostic for Lynparza. The MyChoice CDx test has also received approvals as a companion diagnostic test. The premarket approval process for companion or complementary diagnostics is a complex, costly and time-consuming procedure. Approvals must be supported by valid scientific evidence, submitted as part of a PMA application, which typically requires extensive data, including quality technical, preclinical, clinical and manufacturing data to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety and effectiveness of the companion diagnostic. We are currently collaborating with several bio-pharmaceutical companies for additional indications and geographical commercialization opportunities for BRACAnalysis CDx and MyChoice CDx as companion diagnostics with other drugs.
Ongoing Post-Market Regulatory Requirements in the United States
Any products sold by us pursuant to FDA clearances or approvals will be subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA. In particular, after a medical device is placed on the market, applicable regulatory requirements include:
•compliance with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation (QSR), which requires manufacturers to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation, record maintenance, including maintenance of complaint and related investigation files, and other quality assurance controls during the manufacturing process;
•labeling and advertising regulations, which prohibit the promotion of FDA-regulated medical products for uncleared, or unapproved uses, or “off-label” uses, and impose other restrictions on labeling; and
•medical device reporting obligations, which require that manufacturers investigate and report to the FDA adverse events, including deaths, or serious injuries that may have been or were caused by a medical device and malfunctions in the device that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur.
In addition, device manufacturers are required to register their establishments and list their devices with the FDA and are subject to periodic inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies. Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in enforcement action by the FDA and other enforcement agencies, which may include sanctions, including but not limited to, warning letters; fines, injunctions and civil penalties; recall or seizure of the device; operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production; refusal to grant 510(k) clearance or approval of PMAs of new devices; withdrawal of clearance or approval; and civil or criminal prosecution.
Regulation of In Vitro Diagnostics and Companion Diagnostic Devices Outside the United States
Products intended for use in IVD applications require regulatory approvals in many other countries and geographic areas, some of which also provide for approval of companion diagnostics.
In the European Union (EU), IVD medical devices historically were regulated under the EU Directive 98/79/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (the Directive). IVDs were not subject to pre-market authorization by a National Competent Authority (NCA) under the Directive, but instead had to comply with essential requirements based on conformity with harmonized standards. For certain IVDs, compliance with the essential requirements was subject to assessment by a Notified Body. Notified bodies are entities designated by the relevant NCAs and are responsible for assessing the conformity of IVDs before they are placed on the EU market. Under the Directive, the majority of IVDs could be placed on the market as a result of the manufacturer self-certifying the IVD as being in conformity with the essential requirements, without the involvement of a Notified Body.
The Directive was replaced by the Regulation (EU) 2017/746 of the European Parliament and of the Council on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDR) that entered into force in May 2017, and which initially included a 5-year transition period until its original effective date of May 26, 2022. Unlike the Directive, which specifies certain requirements that must be achieved by each Member State and permits each Member State to decide how to transpose the Directive into national law to meet those requirements, the IVDR has direct binding legal force throughout every Member State without the need for national implementation. The major goals of the IVDR are to standardize diagnostic procedures within the EU, increase reliability of diagnostic analysis and enhance patient safety. Under the IVDR, IVDs are subject to additional legal regulatory requirements as compared to the Directive. Among other things, the IVDR introduces a new risk-based classification for IVDs and specifies CDx and genetic tests as Class C products (second highest risk). Under the IVDR, Class C IVDs require assessment by a Notified Body for certification and audit of the manufacturer's quality management system before they can be placed on the market. The IVDR also obligates laboratories located outside the EU to comply with the IVDR if testing specimens from European citizens. Compliance with the IVDR may be expensive and time-consuming. Manufacturers will need to provide significant evidence to demonstrate that a device performs safely and effectively. Performance data may require the conduct of additional clinical investigations or performance studies, with additional and more strict requirements under the IVDR. As noted above, the vast majority of IVDs under the Directive are self-certified, so many device manufacturers have not previously been subject to the Notified Body audits that will occur under the IVDR and will have to revise their Quality Management System (QMS) and Technical Documentation which will now be reviewed by the Notified Bodies. Companion diagnostic IVDs may also be reviewed by the competent medicinal product authorities, usually the European Medicines Agency, as part of a consultation process that will be part of the conformity assessment procedure. There will also be a greater emphasis on post-market surveillance and submission of post-market performance follow-up reports. Due to multiple challenges to the IVDR being ready for full application by the May 2022 implementation date, Regulation (EU) 2022/112 of the Parliament and of the Council was published on 25 January 2022 allowing for a delay to the application of the IVDR by amending the transition provision for certain in vitro diagnostic medical devices. For products classified as Class C under the IVDR, the transition period allows for legacy devices with a valid declaration of conformity drawn up prior to May 26, 2022 to continue to be placed on the market until May 26, 2026. However, certain IVDR requirements, including post-market surveillance, market surveillance, vigilance, and registration of economic operators and devices remained effective on the May 26, 2022 implementation date.
The withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU has had ramifications for IVD manufacturers. Among other things, IVD manufacturers have to follow new procedures in the UK including appointment of a UK Responsible Person to manage their compliance efforts in the UK.
The UK Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) issued guidance on the regulation of IVDs in the UK following Brexit, and changed the applicable legislation in the UK to take account of the fact that the UK is not a free-standing regulatory regime.
As described in these provisions, MHRA will continue to recognize CE marks until July 2024. Companies wishing to place IVDs on the UK market have been required to register with MHRA since January 1, 2021, but are still able to sell CE-IVD marked products in Great Britain, which is defined as England, Scotland and Wales, until July 2024. From approximately July 2024, when new legislation is intended to come into force, companies selling in the UK will have to obtain a new marking called a UK Conformity Assessed mark (UKCA) in order to place a diagnostic device into commerce in Great Britain. This mark, which can be obtained now, is not recognized in EU countries, meaning that companies that wish to sell in the UK and the EU will have to seek both a UKCA and CE-IVD mark in the future. The EU legislative framework applies in Northern Ireland, meaning that companies can still, and will still be able to, sell tests in Northern Ireland under applicable EU IVD regulations including the current IVDR.
IVDs are regulated in Japan by the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) and are assigned to one of three classes depending on the perceived level of risk. Those in the least risky class may be registered and marketed after filing a pre-market submission, while those in the middle class are subject to pre-market certification by a registered certification body. The riskiest IVDs must be approved. Submissions may be made only by marketing authorization holders, which must satisfy specific requirements.
Significant revisions to Japanese regulations of medical devices, IVDs and other health care products are ongoing. The first round of changes to Japan’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act took effect September 1, 2020 and August 2021, with additional revisions coming into force in December 2022. Some of those changes will affect IVDs, including the ability to qualify for fast track designation.
Additional International Regulation
We market, directly or through distributors, some of our tests outside of the United States and are subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing laboratory licensure, human clinical testing, use of tissue, privacy and data security, and marketing approval for our tests. These requirements vary by jurisdiction, differ from those in the United States and may require us to implement additional compliance measures or perform additional pre-clinical or clinical testing. In many countries outside of the United States, coverage, pricing and reimbursement approvals are also required. We are also required to maintain accurate information on and control over sales and distributors’ activities that may fall within the purview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, its books and records provisions and its anti-bribery provisions, as well the UK Bribery Act and other anti-corruption laws.
HIPAA and Other Privacy Laws
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which applies to health plans, healthcare clearing houses, and healthcare providers that conduct certain health care transactions electronically (Covered Entities) contains provisions that address the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information (called “protected health information” under HIPAA), the standardization of identifying numbers used in the healthcare system and the standardization of certain health care transactions. HIPAA's privacy regulations protect health information by limiting its use and disclosure to certain purposes, such as treatment or payment, without patient authorization. HIPAA also gives patients certain rights including the right to access their medical records and the right to an accounting of certain disclosures of protected health information. HIPAA's privacy rule also limits many disclosures of protected health information to the minimum amount necessary to accomplish an intended purpose. The HIPAA security standards require the adoption of administrative, physical, and technical safeguards for the protection of protected health information and the adoption of written security policies and procedures.
The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) expanded and strengthened HIPAA, created new targets for enforcement, imposed new penalties for noncompliance and established new breach notification requirements for Covered Entities. Under HITECH’s breach notification requirements, Covered Entities must report breaches of protected health information that has not been encrypted or otherwise secured in accordance with guidance from the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Required breach notices must be made as soon as is reasonably practicable, but no later than 60 days following discovery of the breach. Reports must be made to affected individuals and to the Secretary and, in some cases depending on the size of the breach, they must be reported through local and national media. Breach reports can lead to investigation, enforcement, civil monetary penalties and civil litigation, including class action lawsuits and enforcement by state.
We are currently subject to the HIPAA regulations and maintain an active compliance program that is designed to meet requirements of the privacy and security rules and to identify privacy and security incidents and other issues in a timely fashion so that we may remediate, mitigate harm and report if required by law. However, even if we take steps to comply with HIPAA, we may be subject to complaints and investigation at the federal and/or state level. In the event of a breach, even if we mitigate harm and make required reports on a timely basis, we may still be subject to penalties for the underlying breach.
In addition to the federal privacy and security regulations, there are a number of state laws regarding the privacy and security of health information and personal data that can be applicable to our clinical laboratories, as further discussed in the "Risk Factor" section below. Many states have also implemented genetic testing laws imposing specific patient consent requirements and protecting genetic information by limiting the disclosure of such information. State requirements are particularly stringent regarding predictive genetic tests, due to the risk of genetic discrimination against healthy patients identified through testing as being at risk for disease. Compliance with health information privacy and security statutes and regulations, including genetic testing and genetic information privacy laws in all jurisdictions, both state and federal, can be challenging as these laws often change, and we may not be able to maintain compliance in all jurisdictions where we do business.
Transparency Laws and Regulations
A federal law known as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires medical device manufacturers to track and report to CMS certain payments and other transfers of value made to covered recipients, which include physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives who are not bona fide employees of the manufacturer, as well as teaching hospitals, and ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Manufacturers must report data for the previous calendar year by the 90th day of the then-current calendar year. CMS then publishes the data on a publicly available website no later than June 30th. There are also state “sunshine” laws that require manufacturers to provide reports to state governments on pricing and marketing information. Several states have enacted legislation requiring medical device manufacturers to, among other things, establish marketing compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state, and make periodic public disclosures on sales and marketing activities, and such laws may also prohibit or limit certain other sales and marketing practices. These laws may adversely affect our sales, marketing, and other activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. If we fail to track and report as required by these laws or to otherwise comply with these laws, we could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.
Reimbursement and Billing
Reimbursement and billing for diagnostic services is highly complex. Laboratories must bill various payors, such as private third-party payors, including managed care organizations (MCO), and state and federal health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and each may have different billing requirements. Additionally, the audit requirements imposed by these payors, as well as our internal compliance policies and procedures, add further complexity to the billing process. Other factors that complicate billing include:
•variability in coverage and information requirements among various payors;
•patient financial assistance programs;
•missing, incomplete or inaccurate billing information provided by ordering physicians;
•billings to payors with whom we do not have contracts;
•disputes with payors as to which party is responsible for payment; and
•disputes with payors as to the appropriate level of reimbursement.
Depending on the reimbursement arrangement and applicable law, the party that reimburses us for our tests may be:
•a third party who provides coverage to the patient, such as an MCO;
•a state or federal health care program; or
Presently, approximately 63% of our revenue comes from private third-party payors.
In April 2014, Congress passed the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA), which included substantial changes to the way in which CMS pays for clinical laboratory services under Medicare’s Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule (CLFS). PAMA took effect on January 1, 2018 and requires applicable laboratories to report to CMS private insurer payment rates and volumes for their tests. CMS uses the data reported and the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System code associated with the test to calculate a weighted median payment rate for each test, which is used to establish revised Medicare CLFS reimbursement rates for tests that are considered to be clinical diagnostic laboratory tests (CDLTs), subject to certain phase-in limits. For tests furnished on or after January 1, 2019, Medicare payments for CDLTs are based on reported private payor rates. For a CDLT that is assigned a new or substantially revised current procedural terminology (CPT) code, the initial payment rate is assigned using the gap-fill methodology, as under prior law.
If the test falls into the category of new advanced diagnostic laboratory test (ADLT) instead of a CDLT, the test will be paid based on an actual list charge for an initial period of three quarters before being shifted to the weighted median private payor rate reported by the laboratory performing the ADLT. Laboratories offering ADLTs are subject to recoupment if the actual list charge exceeds the weighted median private payor rate by a certain amount. Accordingly, if newly developed tests receive Medicare coverage in the future, the reimbursement rate we receive for such tests may be affected by payment rates made by private payors for such tests.
On December 20, 2019, the President signed the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, which included the Laboratory Access for Beneficiaries Act (LAB Act). The LAB Act delayed until the first quarter of 2021 reporting of payment data under PAMA for CDLTs that are not ADLTs. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), which Congress passed in March 2020, again delayed the reporting by an additional year, this time until the first quarter of 2022. Then, on December 10, 2021, Congress passed the Protecting Medicare and American Farmers from Sequester Cuts Act, which included a provision that further delayed the next PAMA reporting period for CDLTs that are not ADLTs to January 1, 2023 through March 31, 2023. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 enacted on December 29, 2022 again delayed the next PAMA reporting period to January 1, 2024 through March 31, 2024. New CLFS rates for CDLTs will be established based on that data beginning in 2025, subject to phase-in limits.
CMS’s methodology under PAMA (as well as the willingness of commercial insurers to recognize the value of diagnostic testing and pay for that testing accordingly) renders commercial insurer payment levels even more significant. This calculation methodology has resulted in significant reductions in reimbursement, even though CMS imposed caps on those reductions. For example, PAMA (as amended) includes provisions that limit the amount by which payment for testing may be reduced. For example, for 2018 through 2020, a test price could not be reduced by more than 10% per year. Reductions for 2023 through 2025 are limited to 15%. The CARES Act delayed for one year the 15% cut that was scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2021, and the Protecting Medicare and American Farmers from Sequester Cuts Act further delayed those cuts until 2023. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023, again delayed the cuts until 2024.
The subsequent data reporting period for CDLTs that are not ADLTs will occur in three-year cycles, with the next cycle beginning in 2027. Given the many uncertainties built into PAMA’s price-setting process, we cannot predict how payments we receive under the CLFS, and thus our revenue, may change from year to year.
The No Surprises Act was signed into law on December 27, 2020, as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021. The Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Treasury, and the Department of Labor have since released “Tri-Agency” regulations to implement the No Surprises Act, which became effective on January 1, 2022. The law and regulations generally apply to group health plans and health insurance issuers offering group or individual health insurance coverage for plan years starting January 1, 2022, and to certain health care providers and facilities. For non-emergency services provided by an out-of-network provider (such as a laboratory) during a visit at an in-network facility (which includes a hospital but not a physician office), the No Surprises Act requires the non-emergency services provider to hold a patient harmless for amounts beyond the in-network cost-sharing requirement. In other words, balance billing generally is prohibited. Because these billing requirements do not apply to patient specimens collected in a physician office, Myriad is impacted primarily when a patient’s specimen is collected at an in-network hospital, and Myriad is an out-of-network provider under the patient’s insurance plan. Out-of-network rates for covered services are determined by a state All-Payer Model Agreement, a specified state law, an agreed-upon amount, or, if none apply, an amount determined by an independent dispute resolution entity. The cost-sharing amount is limited to an amount determined by an All-Payor Model Agreement, a specified state law, or, if neither applies, the lesser of the billed charge or the “qualifying payment amount,” which is generally the plan or issuer’s median contracted rate for the same or similar service in the specific geographic area. Non-covered services are not impacted by these rules. In addition, providers, including Myriad, must post consumer notices on their website about the applicability of the law. Providers, including physician offices, must provide a good faith estimate of the cost of the service when requested by a patient who is uninsured or seeking to forgo insurance and pay cash instead.
Federal and State Fraud and Abuse Laws
A variety of state and federal laws prohibit fraud and abuse involving state and federal health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. These laws are interpreted broadly and enforced aggressively by various state and federal agencies, including CMS, the Department of Justice, the Office of Inspector General for the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG), and various state agencies. In addition, the Medicare and Medicaid programs increasingly use a variety of contractors to review claims data and to identify improper payments as well as fraud and abuse. Any overpayments must be repaid within 60 days of identification unless a favorable decision is obtained on appeal. In some cases, these overpayments can be used as the basis for an extrapolation by which the error rate is applied to a larger set of claims, which can result in even higher repayments.
The Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, arranging for or recommending of an item or service that is reimbursable, in whole or in part, by a federal health care program. “Remuneration” is broadly interpreted to include anything of monetary value, such as, for example, cash payments, gifts or gift certificates, discounts, or the furnishing of services, supplies or equipment.
Recognizing the potential breadth of interpretation of the Anti-Kickback Statute and the fact that it may technically prohibit many innocuous or beneficial arrangements within the healthcare industry, the OIG has promulgated safe harbors intended to protect such arrangements. Compliance with all requirements of a safe harbor immunizes the parties to the business arrangement from prosecution under the Anti-Kickback Statute. The failure of a business arrangement to fit within a safe harbor does not necessarily mean that the arrangement is illegal or that enforcement agencies will pursue prosecution. Still, in the absence of an applicable safe harbor, a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute may occur even if only one purpose of an arrangement is to induce referrals. The penalties for violating the Anti-Kickback Statute can be severe. These sanctions include criminal and civil penalties, imprisonment and possible exclusion from federal health care programs. Many states have adopted laws similar to the Anti-Kickback Statute, and some apply to items and services reimbursable by any payor, including private third-party payors.
In addition, in October 2018, the Eliminating Kickbacks in Recovery Act of 2018 (EKRA), was enacted as part of the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (the SUPPORT Act). EKRA is an all-payor anti-kickback law that makes it a criminal offense to pay any remuneration to induce referrals to, or in exchange for, patients using the services of a recovery home, a substance use clinical treatment facility, or laboratory. Although it appears that EKRA was intended to reach patient brokering and similar arrangements to induce patronage of substance use recovery and treatment, the language in EKRA is broadly written. Further, certain of EKRA’s exceptions are inconsistent with the Anti-Kickback Statute regulations. Significantly, EKRA permits the U.S. Department of Justice to issue regulations clarifying EKRA’s exceptions or adding additional exceptions, but such regulations have not yet been issued. Further, there is no agency guidance and little court precedent to indicate how and to what extent EKRA will be applied and enforced.
Physician Self-Referral Bans
The federal ban on physician self-referrals, commonly known as the Stark Law, prohibits, subject to certain exceptions, physician referrals of Medicare patients to an entity providing certain designated health services, which include laboratory services, if the physician or an immediate family member of the physician has any financial relationship with the entity. Several Stark Law exceptions are relevant to arrangements involving clinical laboratories, including but not limited to: (1) fair market value compensation for the provision of items or services; (2) payments by physicians to a laboratory for clinical laboratory services; (3) space and equipment rental arrangements that satisfy certain requirements; and (4) personal services arrangements. Penalties for violating the Stark Law include the return of funds received for all prohibited referrals, fines, civil monetary penalties and possible exclusion from federal health care programs. In addition to the Stark Law, many states have their own self-referral bans, which may extend to all self-referrals, regardless of the payor.
State and Federal Prohibitions on False Claims
The federal False Claims Act imposes liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to the federal government. Under the False Claims Act, a person acts knowingly if he or she has actual knowledge of the information or acts in deliberate ignorance or in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information. Specific intent to defraud is not required. The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring an action on behalf of the federal government and to share in any amounts paid by the defendant to the government in connection with the action. Penalties include payment of up to three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus civil penalties of between $5,500 and $11,000 for each false claim, as well as possible exclusion from federal health care programs. However, the civil penalty amounts are adjusted annually for inflation. In addition, various states have enacted similar laws modeled after the False Claims Act that apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state health care programs, and, in several states, such laws apply to claims submitted to any payor.
Civil Monetary Penalties Law
The federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law (the CMP Law), prohibits, among other things, (1) the offering or transfer of remuneration to a Medicare or state health care program beneficiary if the person knows or should know it is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner, or supplier of services reimbursable by Medicare or a state health care program, unless an exception applies; (2) employing or contracting with an individual or entity that the provider knows or should know is excluded from participation in a federal health care program; (3) billing for services requested by an unlicensed physician or an excluded provider; and (4) billing for medically unnecessary services. The penalties for violating the CMP Law include exclusion, substantial fines, and payment of up to three times the amount billed, depending on the nature of the offense.
Other U.S. Regulatory Requirements
We are subject to laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment, the health and safety of employees and the handling, transportation and disposal of medical specimens, infectious and hazardous waste and radioactive materials. For example, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established extensive requirements relating specifically to workplace safety for healthcare employers in the United States. This includes requirements to develop and implement multi-faceted programs to protect workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, including preventing or minimizing any exposure through needle stick injuries. For purposes of transportation, some biological materials and laboratory supplies are classified as hazardous materials and are subject to regulation by one or more of the following agencies: the U.S. Department of Transportation, the U.S. Public Health Service, the United States Postal Service, the Office of Foreign Assets Control, and the International Air Transport Association.
Our laboratories are subject to federal, state and local regulations relating to the handling and disposal of regulated medical waste, radioactive materials, hazardous waste and biohazardous waste, including chemical and biological agents and compounds, blood and bone marrow samples, and other human tissue. Typically, we use outside vendors who are contractually obligated to comply with applicable laws and regulations to dispose of such waste. These vendors are licensed or otherwise qualified to handle and dispose of such waste.
In addition, our advertising for laboratory services and LDTs that are not FDA-approved is subject to federal truth-in-advertising laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as well as certain state laws. Under the Federal Trade Commission Act, or FTC Act, the FTC is empowered, among other things, to prevent unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce. The FTC has very broad enforcement authority, and failure to abide by the substantive requirements of the FTC Act and other consumer protection laws can result in administrative or judicial penalties, including civil penalties, injunctions affecting the manner in which we would be able to market services or certain products in the future, or criminal prosecution.
Change in Fiscal Year
Effective January 1, 2021, we changed our fiscal year end from the last day of June to a calendar fiscal year. The six month period that commenced on July 1, 2020 and ended on December 31, 2020 was a transition period and is referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as the "transition period." References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “fiscal year” refer to years ended June 30th or December 31st, as applicable.
We are a Delaware corporation with our principal executive offices located at 320 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108. Our telephone number is (801) 584-3600 and our website address is www.myriad.com. We make available free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our website our Code of Conduct, our Audit and Finance Committee and other committee charters and our other corporate governance policies, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Securities and Exchange Commission maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We include our website address in this Annual Report on Form 10-K only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.
Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations, and financial results:
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Strategy
•We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue from our existing tests or develop new tests to be profitable.
•Our strategic growth plan may not achieve the anticipated results, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain revenue growth or operate our business on a profitable basis.
•Our financial condition and results of operations could be further adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic or any other adverse public health development.
•If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and are unable to secure additional funding, we may have to reduce our operations.
•We are subject to debt covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and if we are not able to comply with them, it could have a material adverse impact on our operations and liquidity.
•If our current operating plan changes and we find that our existing capital resources will not meet our needs, we may find it necessary to raise additional funding, which may not be available.
•We are currently subject to, and in the future may be subject to, securities class action lawsuits and stockholder derivative actions, as well as product or professional liability claims. These, and potential similar or related litigation, could result in substantial losses and have a material adverse effect on our business, cash position, operating results or financial condition.
•An inability to attract and retain experienced and qualified personnel, including key management personnel, could adversely affect our business.
•We have acquired and we may continue to acquire technologies, assets or other businesses that could cause us to incur significant expense and expose us to a number of unanticipated operational and financial risks, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.
•If our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test does not perform as expected, we may not realize the expected benefits of our acquisition of Gateway.
•Security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions, including from cyberattacks, could compromise sensitive information related to our business, prevent us from accessing critical information or expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.
•If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems, our business operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
•Each of our tests is processed in a single one of our laboratory facilities, and any loss or prolonged interruption of our ability to use these laboratories or failure to maintain their operation in compliance with applicable regulations would seriously harm our business.
•We depend on a limited number of third parties, or, in some cases, single-source suppliers, for equipment, reagents and other supplies. If these supplies become unavailable or are disrupted, including as a result of COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it, then we may not be able to successfully perform our research or operate our business on a timely basis or at all.
•Our international business exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
•Ethical, legal and social concerns related to the use of genetic information could reduce demand for our tests.
•We rely on commercial courier delivery services to transport biological materials to our facilities in a timely and cost-efficient manner and if these delivery services are disrupted, our business will be harmed.
•We face risks associated with currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Risks Related to the Development and Commercialization of Our Tests and Test Candidates
•Our tests in development may not be clinically effective or may never achieve significant commercial market acceptance and our test offerings that we have recently launched or acquired may not be commercially successful.
•If we do not compete effectively with scientific and commercial competitors, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our tests, increase our revenue or achieve and sustain profitability.
•If our current research collaborators or scientific advisors terminate their relationships with us or develop relationships with a competitor, our ability to discover genes, proteins, and biomarkers, and to validate and commercialize tests could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Reimbursement
•If the government and third-party payors fail to provide coverage and adequate payment for our existing and future tests, if any, our revenue and prospects for profitability will be harmed.
•Failure to comply with laws and regulations related to submission of claims for our services could result in significant monetary damages and penalties and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and corresponding foreign reimbursement programs.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
•If we are not able to protect our proprietary technology, others could compete against us more directly, which would harm our business.
•If we are subject to litigation or other proceedings arising from a claim of infringement of the intellectual property of a third party, we might incur significant costs and delays in test introduction or we could be prevented from using technologies incorporated in our tests.
•If we fail to comply with our obligations under license or technology agreements with third parties, we could lose license rights that are critical to our business.
•We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets.
•If we fail to adequately protect our trademarks, service marks, trade names and trade dress, we may lose goodwill and brand equity associated with our business.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
•If we fail to comply with the complex federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that apply to our business, we could suffer consequences that could materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
•Our actual or perceived failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations could lead to government enforcement actions, private litigation, and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our business.
•We may from time to time be subject to government investigation(s), the unfavorable outcome of which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
•Changes in health care policy could increase our costs, decrease our revenues and impact sales of and reimbursement for our tests.
•Our business could be harmed by the loss, suspension, or other restriction on a license, certification, or accreditation, or by the imposition of a fine or penalties, under CLIA, its implementing regulations, or other state, federal and foreign laws and regulations affecting licensure or certification, or by future changes in these laws or regulations.
•Changes in the way that the FDA regulates tests performed by laboratories like ours could result in delay or additional expense in offering our tests and tests that we may develop in the future.
•FDA regulation of our GeneSight Psychotropic test could be disruptive to our business.
•Companion and complementary diagnostic tests require FDA approval, and we may not be able to secure such approval in a timely manner or at all.
•Our companion diagnostic tests are subject to ongoing regulatory compliance obligations and continued regulatory review and the failure to comply with such obligations could result in regulatory enforcement and/or penalties.
•Our business involves environmental risks that may result in liability for us.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
•Our stock price is highly volatile, and our stock may lose all or a significant part of its value.
•Our inability to achieve and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our results of operations, our stock price and investor confidence in us.
•Anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law, provisions in our charter and bylaws and re-adoption of our stockholders’ rights plan, or poison pill, could make a third-party acquisition of us difficult.
•Future sales and issuances of our common stock would result in dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
•We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to changes in the value of our common stock.
•If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
•Our restated bylaws provide that a state court located within the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Strategy
We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue from our existing tests or develop new tests to be profitable.
We believe our future success is dependent upon our ability to successfully market our existing tests to additional patients within the United States, to expand into new markets within and outside the United States, and to develop and commercialize new tests. However, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue, from our existing tests and launching and commercializing new tests, to be profitable. The demand for our existing tests may decrease or may not continue to increase at historical rates due to sales of new tests that may replace or cannibalize our existing product portfolio, or for other reasons such as the introduction of competing testing products by competitors. For example, because most of our tests are only utilized once per patient, we will need to sell our products to new patients or develop new tests in order to continue to generate revenue. Our average reimbursement rate per test may also decline, which may cause our revenues to decrease. Our pipeline of new test candidates, such as FirstGene and Precise MRD, are in various stages of development, some of which may take many more years to develop, and must undergo extensive clinical validation. We may be unable to discover or develop any additional tests through the utilization of our technologies or technologies we license or acquire from others. Even if we develop tests for commercial use, we may not be able to develop tests that:
•meet applicable regulatory standards, in a timely manner or at all;
•successfully compete with other technologies and tests;
•avoid infringing the proprietary rights of others;
•are adequately reimbursed by third-party payors;
•can be performed at commercial levels or at reasonable cost; or
•can be successfully marketed.
We must generate significant revenue to achieve profitability. Even if we succeed in marketing our existing tests to physicians for use in new patients and in developing and commercializing any additional tests, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to be profitable.
Our strategic growth plan may not achieve the anticipated results, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain revenue growth or operate our business on a profitable basis.
We are currently executing upon a strategic growth plan in which we intend to accelerate growth through launching new tests, utilizing a unified ordering portal to improve access and ease of use for patients and providers, expanding reimbursement coverage for our tests, enhancing our commercial capabilities and deploying a new commercial model in our Women's Health and Oncology businesses. Our future performance and growth depends on the success of our growth plan, including management's ability to execute upon that plan and the ability of our employees to respond quickly and effectively to strategic projects and changes in our operations and business practices. The implementation of our strategic growth plan has resulted, and is expected to continue to result, in changes to business priorities and operations, capital allocation priorities, operational and organizational structures, and increased demands on management. The execution of our strategic growth plan may take longer than anticipated, and we may not realize, in full or part, our anticipated growth targets in our testing volumes and revenue, or such growth may be realized more slowly than anticipated.
Historically, our business operated profitably and provided a cash contribution to our funding and operational needs. However, in recent years we have not operated our business profitably, and we may not be able to operate our business on a profitable basis in the future. Potential events or factors that may have a significant impact on our ability to achieve our growth targets and achieve and/or maintain revenue growth and profitability for our business include the following:
•the efforts of third-party payors to limit or decrease the amounts that they are willing to pay for our tests, recoup amounts already paid, or institute burdensome administrative requirements for reimbursement, such as prior authorization requirements;
•increased costs of reagents and other consumables required for testing;
•increased personnel and facility costs;
•our inability to hire competent, trained staff, including laboratory directors required to review and approve all reports we issue in our business, and sales personnel;
•our inability to obtain necessary equipment or reagents to perform testing;
•our inability to increase production capacity to meet demand increases;
•our inability to expand into new markets within or outside the United States;
•our ability to execute on our strategic growth plan;
•increased licensing or royalty costs, and our ability to maintain and enforce the intellectual property rights underlying our tests and services;
•changes in intellectual propriety law applicable to our patents or enforcement in the United States and foreign countries;
•the expiration of the patents covering our products;
•the outcome of outstanding or new litigation;
•potential obsolescence of our tests;
•our inability to obtain or increase commercial acceptance of our tests;
•increased competition and loss of market share;
•global or local economic conditions;
•increased regulatory requirements; and
•material litigation costs, settlements, and judgments.
The failure to achieve our growth targets and achieve and/or maintain revenue growth and profitability for our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, as well as the trading price of our common stock.
Our financial condition and results of operations could be further adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic or any other adverse public health development.
Any further outbreaks of COVID-19 (including its variant strains) or any other outbreak of contagious disease or adverse public health development, could have a further material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition, or results of operations. For example, government public health officials and businesses have implemented, and may continue to implement, restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19, which has limited, and may continue to limit, patients’ access to our products, and has caused, and may continue to cause, patients to elect to defer certain testing, each of which has impeded, and may continue to impede, our progress in returning to profitability and recovering from the earlier effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such adverse effects have included, and may continue to include, diversion or prioritization of health care resources away from the conduct of testing, and disruptions or restrictions affecting the ability of our laboratories to process our tests. Future surges in COVID-19 cases or any other outbreak of contagious disease and related employee absences may strain our workforce and impact our ability to process tests in a timely way due to reduced staff availability.
To the extent that COVID-19 or another disease affects individuals and businesses around the globe, we may experience further disruptions from time to time that could severely impact our business, including:
•decreased volume of testing as a result of disruptions to health care providers and limitations on the ability of providers to administer tests, including the suspension of non-emergency appointments and services;
•disruptions or restrictions on the ability of our customers, our collaborators’, or our suppliers’ personnel to travel, including as a result of shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders from state and local governments, and temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our collaborators or suppliers;
•limitations on employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the development of our products, processing our tests, and the conduct of our clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or requirements imposed on employees to avoid contact with large groups of people; and
•delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or access.
In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19 or the spread of another disease globally could continue to adversely affect our manufacturing and supply chain. Parts of our direct and indirect supply chain are located overseas and both international and domestic components have been, and may continue to be, subject to disruption as a result of COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it. If the supplies and components necessary to manufacture our products become unavailable or are disrupted as a result of COVID-19 or the spread of another disease and responses to it, then we may not be able to successfully perform our research, sell our tests, or operate our business on a timely basis or at all.
The extent to which COVID-19 continues to affect our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration, spread and severity of COVID-19 outbreaks, the rate of vaccination and efficacy of approved vaccines against COVID-19 and its variant strains, actions taken to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, new information that may emerge concerning the health effects of COVID-19, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions resume, any of which could have a further adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides or becomes endemic, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of its global economic impact, including from increased inflation, delayed economic recovery and any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. In addition, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as inflation, decreases in per capita income and level of disposable income and related health insurance coverage, increased and prolonged unemployment or a decline in consumer confidence as a result of the pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on the demand for some or all of our products.
If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and are unable to secure additional funding, we may have to reduce our operations.
While we anticipate that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, future cash flow from operations, and in certain circumstances, amounts available for borrowing under our Amended Facility (as defined below) will be sufficient to fund our current operations for the foreseeable future, changes could occur that would consume available capital resources more quickly than we currently expect and we may need or want to raise additional financing.
On December 23, 2016, we entered into a senior secured revolving credit facility as borrower, with the lenders from time to time party thereto, which was amended on July 31, 2018, May 1, 2020, February 22, 2021 and July 26, 2022 (the "Amended Facility"). As of December 31, 2022, we have no outstanding borrowings under our Amended Facility and our revolving commitment amount was $150.0 million.
The Amended Facility restricts our ability to make future borrowings if unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities exceed $150.0 million, unless such borrowings are used in connection with certain permitted acquisitions. Unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled $169.7 million as of December 31, 2022. As our total unrestricted cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities under the Amended Facility exceeded $150.0 million as of December 31, 2022, we are currently unable to make future borrowings under the Amended Facility unless related to a permitted acquisition. In addition, our Amended Facility expires on July 31, 2023, and there is no guarantee that the Amended Facility will be extended or that we will be able to secure additional funding or other financing options in a timely manner or on favorable terms, if at all.
We are also subject to financial covenants as part of our Amended Facility that could limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness. Without additional funds, we may be forced to delay, scale back or eliminate some of our sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, or other operations, and potentially delay development of our tests in an effort to provide sufficient funds to continue our operations. If any of these events occur, our ability to achieve our development and commercialization goals could be adversely affected.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors that are currently unknown to us, including:
•the scope, progress, results and cost of development, clinical testing and pre-market studies of any new tests that we may develop or acquire;
•the progress, results, and costs to develop additional tests;
•our ability to operate our business on a profitable basis;
•the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our current issued patents, and defending intellectual property-related claims;
•our ability to enter into collaborations, licensing or other arrangements favorable to us;
•the costs of acquiring technologies or businesses, and our ability to successfully integrate and achieve the expected benefits of our business development activities and acquisitions;
•the progress, cost and results of our international efforts;
•the costs of expanding our sales and marketing functions and commercial operation facilities in the United States and in new markets;
•the costs, timing and outcome of any litigation against us; and
•the costs to satisfy our current and future obligations.
We are subject to debt covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and if we are not able to comply with them, it could have a material adverse impact on our operations and liquidity.
Covenants in the Amended Facility impose operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may prohibit or place limitations on, among other things, our ability to incur additional indebtedness, create certain types of liens, and complete mergers, consolidations, or change in control transactions. Under the Amended Facility, a change in control of the Company, which means that a stockholder or a group of stockholders is or becomes the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of more than 35% of the total voting power of the voting stock of the Company, would require mandatory prepayment of any outstanding debt. The Amended Facility may also prohibit or place limitations on our ability to sell assets, pay dividends or provide other distributions to stockholders. These restrictions could also limit our ability to take advantage of business opportunities. We are also required to comply with certain financial covenants, including a minimum liquidity covenant, under the Amended Facility. If we are unable to comply with these financial covenants in the Amended Facility, we may be in default under the agreement. A default would result in an increase in the rate of interest and limits on our ability to incur certain additional indebtedness and it could potentially cause any loan repayment to be accelerated, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our operations and liquidity.
If our current operating plan changes and we find that our existing capital resources will not meet our needs, we may find it necessary to raise additional funding, which may not be available.
We anticipate that our existing capital resources and expected net cash to be generated from sales of our tests will enable us to maintain our currently planned operations for the foreseeable future. However, we base this expectation on our current operating plan, which may change. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant costs in the development and marketing of current and prospective tests. Our ongoing efforts to develop tests and expand our business, which may be through internally developed products, partnerships, in-licensing and mergers and acquisitions, will require substantial cash resources. In addition, we have incurred, and may continue to incur, substantial costs in defending and settling legal proceedings. We may also be required to pay an additional $32.5 million to the former equity and vested incentive unit holders of Gateway, if certain revenue, volume and earnings targets set forth in the acquisition agreement are achieved. If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to raise additional funds. Sources of potential additional capital resources may include, but are not limited to, public or private equity financings, expanding or supplementing our Amended Facility, or selling convertible or non-convertible debt securities. This additional funding, if necessary, may not be available to us on reasonable terms, or at all. If we issue shares of stock or other securities to acquire new companies or technologies, the ownership interests of our existing stockholders may be significantly diluted and the price of our common stock may decrease.
Because of our potential long-term capital requirements, we may access the public or private equity or debt markets whenever conditions are favorable, even if we do not have an immediate need for additional capital at that time. Under Securities and Exchange Commission rules, we currently qualify as a well-known seasoned issuer (WKSI), and can at any time file a registration statement registering securities to be sold to the public which would become effective and available for use upon filing. If additional funds are raised by issuing equity or equity-based securities, existing stockholders may suffer significant dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances, partnerships and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or tests or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.
We are currently subject to, and in the future may be subject to, securities class action lawsuits and stockholder derivative actions, as well as product or professional liability claims. These, and potential similar or related litigation, could result in substantial losses and have a material adverse effect on our business, cash position, operating results or financial condition.
We are currently subject to a variety of litigation, including a securities class action lawsuit filed in the United States District Court for the District of Utah, and stockholder derivative actions filed in the Delaware Court of Chancery and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. We also may be subject to future securities class action and stockholder derivative claims. Such litigation may adversely impact our business, cash position, results of operations or financial condition and divert management's time and attention from our business. We cannot predict the outcome of these lawsuits, nor can we predict the amount of time and expense that will be required to resolve these lawsuits and the expense of resolving these lawsuits may be in amounts significantly above our insurance coverage.
In addition, the marketing, sale and use of our tests could subject us to liability for errors in, misunderstandings of, or inappropriate reliance on, information we provide to clinicians, geneticists or patients, and lead to claims against us if someone were to allege that a test failed to perform as it was designed or marketed, if we failed to provide a correct test result to a patient, if we failed to correctly interpret the test results, if we failed to update the test results due to a reclassification of the variants according to new published guidelines, or if the ordering physician or patient were to misinterpret test results or improperly rely on them when making a clinical decision. We could also be subject to claims, lawsuits or liability if the biological materials we receive for analysis were not properly attributed to the correct patient or if we failed to maintain custody of or properly track the biological materials. A product liability or professional liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time-consuming for us to defend. For example, on January 24, 2022, we paid $14.0 million to settle a lawsuit that alleged negligence, breach of contract and associated torts in connection with an alleged error in testing performed by us in 2004.
Although we maintain liability insurance for certain claims, including director and officer's insurance and insurance for errors and omissions, we cannot assure you that such insurance would fully protect us from the financial impact of defending against outstanding or future claims or any judgments, fines or settlement costs arising out of any outstanding or future claims. Any claim, including the securities class action and stockholders derivative claims or an errors and omissions liability claim, brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future. If we were successfully sued for product or professional liability claims or in connection with current or future securities class action and stockholder derivative claims, we could face substantial losses that exceed our insurance coverage and our other resources. For example, although we maintain director and officer's insurance coverage and continue to engage in defense of the outstanding securities class action and stockholder derivative claims, our insurance coverage will only cover up to an aggregate of $20.0 million of liability in certain circumstances after we have paid a significant deductible. If we are not successful in our defense of these litigations, we could be forced to make significant payments to or other settlements with our stockholders and their lawyers outside of our insurance coverage, and such payments or settlement arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash position, operating results or financial condition. Additionally, any lawsuit could cause injury to our reputation or cause us to suspend sales of our tests. The occurrence of any of these events could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, cash position, and results of operations.
An inability to attract and retain experienced and qualified personnel, including key management personnel, could adversely affect our business.
Because of the specialized scientific nature of our business, we are highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified and experienced personnel, including key management personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially for management, sales, scientific, medical, information technology, research and development and other technical personnel. We may not be able to attract or retain qualified personnel in the future due to the competition for qualified personnel among life science and technology businesses as well as universities and public and private research institutions. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Our compensation arrangements, such as our short-term incentive and equity award programs, may not be successful in attracting new employees and retaining and motivating our existing employees. Our agreements with our employees generally provide for employment that can be terminated by either party without cause at any time, subject to specified notice requirements. Further, the non-competition provision that certain key employees are subject to may not be enforceable under certain state laws, particularly California, or federal laws or such provisions may be prohibitively expensive to enforce. Our growth and commercial activities have placed a greater workload and strain on our existing employees, increasing the risk that our employees experience fatigue or burnout or terminate their employment with us. In addition, inflation has had, and we expect that it will continue to have, an impact on the costs that we incur to attract and retain qualified personnel, and may make it more difficult for us to attract and retain such personnel.
Our success also depends on the skills, experience and performance of key members of our senior management team, who are critical to directing and managing our growth and development in the future. The loss of any member of our senior management team may cause us to experience difficulties in competing effectively, developing our technologies, and implementing our business strategies. Furthermore, the loss of the services of or failure to recruit key scientific and technical personnel and other qualified personnel who are necessary to operate our business would adversely affect our business and it may have a material adverse effect on our business as a whole.
We have acquired and we may continue to acquire technologies, assets or other businesses that could cause us to incur significant expense and expose us to a number of unanticipated operational and financial risks, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.
In addition to organic growth, we intend to continue to pursue growth through the acquisition of technology, assets or other businesses that may enable us to enhance our technologies and capabilities, expand our geographic market and sales channels, add experienced management personnel and increase our test offerings. For example, on November 1, 2022, we acquired Gateway, which markets and sells the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test. However, these acquisitions may not generate a positive return on our investment. Additionally, we may be unable to implement our growth strategy if we cannot identify suitable acquisition candidates, reach agreement on potential acquisitions on acceptable terms, successfully integrate personnel or assets that we acquire or for other reasons. We may also experience increased expenses, distraction of our management, and personnel and customer uncertainty as a result of our acquisition activities. Our acquisition efforts may involve certain risks, including:
•we may have difficulty integrating operations and systems of any acquired business;
•key personnel and customers of the acquired company may terminate their relationships with the acquired company as a result of the acquisition;
•we may not be successful in launching newly acquired tests, or if those tests are launched, they may not prove successful in the marketplace;
•we may experience additional financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning and financial reporting;
•we may assume or be held liable for risks and liabilities as a result of our acquisitions, including for legal, compliance, recoupment, and environmental-related costs and liabilities, some of which we may not discover during our due diligence;
•we may incur significant additional operating expenses;
•we may experience inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, policies and compensation structures;
•we may encounter risks and limitations on our ability to consolidate our corporate and administrative infrastructures;
•our ongoing business may be disrupted or receive insufficient management attention; and
•we may not be able to realize synergies, the cost savings or other financial and operational benefits we anticipated, or such synergies, savings or benefits may take longer than we expected.
The process of negotiating acquisitions and integrating acquired tests, services, technologies, personnel or businesses might result in operating difficulties and expenditures and might require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for ongoing development of our business, whether or not any such transaction is ever consummated. Moreover, we might never realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition such as increase in our scale, diversification, cash flows and operational efficiency and meaningful accretion to our diluted earnings per share. Future acquisitions could result in the use of our available cash and marketable securities, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the need to incur additional debt, contingent liabilities, or impairment expenses related to goodwill, and impairment or amortization expenses related to other intangible assets, which could harm our financial condition. In addition, if we are unable to integrate any acquired businesses, tests or technologies effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We may also seek to divest assets from time to time, including but not limited to, large capital equipment, diagnostic tests, intellectual property, business units, or corporate affiliates. For example, we divested Myriad RBM, Inc., which provided pharmaceutical and clinical services, on July 1, 2021, and we completed the sale of select operating assets and intellectual property, including the Vectra test, from the Myriad Autoimmune business unit, on September 13, 2021. The prices that we receive for such assets may not be high and, in some cases, have been and may be lower than the amount we invested in or paid for such assets.
If our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test does not perform as expected, we may not realize the expected benefits of our acquisition of Gateway.
On November 1, 2022, we acquired Gateway, a personal genomics company and developer of consumer genetic tests that gives families insight into their future children. Gateway offers and sells the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test in the U.S. direct to consumers via sneakpeektest.com and Amazon.com and through various clinical channels, such as OBGYN offices, midwives, birth centers and ultrasound clinics and laboratories. The SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test is also sold internationally through distributors in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and certain other countries.
The SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test competes against other gender DNA tests and other methods of determining fetal sex (such as non-invasive prenatal testing and ultrasounds) based on a variety of factors, including accuracy, how early the sex of the fetus can be determined, price, ease of use, convenience, and the speed in which test results are delivered. We believe that the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test currently outperforms competing tests and methods of fetal sex determination on a number of these factors, including accuracy, ease of sample collection with the at-home SNAP blood collection device, and the test's ability to reveal a baby’s sex at six weeks into pregnancy, the earliest method available. However, there can be no guarantee that the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test will continue to outperform other early fetal sex determination tests in these areas or that we will be able to continue to enhance and improve the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test in ways that would allow it to remain the market-leading early fetal sex determination test.
The success of our acquisition of Gateway depends in part on the continued growth of the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test, including our ability to sell the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test in retail stores while continuing to increase sales volumes in existing channels, and our ability to cross-sell our Prequel prenatal screening test to SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test customers. Historically, we have limited experience with marketing non-clinical, consumer products directly to consumers or with retail-based marketing strategies, and there can be no guarantee that we will be successful in doing so. In addition, we may not be able to continue to grow the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test at the rate at which it was growing prior to our acquisition of Gateway, and we may not be successful at selling the SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test in retail stores. We may also face a number of obstacles to cross-sell our Prequel prenatal screening test to SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test customers, including persuading physicians of our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test customers to use our Prequel prenatal screening test and navigating patient consent and data privacy laws.
Security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions, including from cyberattacks, could compromise sensitive information related to our business, prevent us from accessing critical information or expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including legally protected patient health information, credit card information, personally identifiable information about our employees and customers, intellectual property, and proprietary business information, including that of our customers, payors and collaboration partners. We manage and maintain our applications and data utilizing on-site, remote, or cloud-based systems. These applications and data encompass a wide variety of business-critical information including research and development information, commercial information and business and financial information.
The secure processing, storage, maintenance and transmission of this critical information are vital to our operations and business strategy, and we devote significant resources to protecting such information. Although we take measures to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or disclosure, our information technology and infrastructure has been, and may continue to be, vulnerable to attacks by hackers, or viruses, malware, including ransomware, breaches or interruptions due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions, or lapses in compliance with privacy and security mandates. Any such malicious cyberattack, virus, breach or interruption could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed by unauthorized parties, publicly disclosed, held for ransom, lost or stolen. We have measures in place that are designed to prevent, and if necessary, to detect and respond to such cybersecurity incidents and breaches of privacy and security mandates. While we have experienced unauthorized accesses to our information technology systems and infrastructure in the past, which may occur again in the future, our security measures have been able to detect, respond to and prevent any material adverse effect to our information systems and business operations from such breaches. However, in the future, any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, such as HIPAA, government enforcement actions and civil or even criminal penalties. Unauthorized access, loss or dissemination could also disrupt our operations, including our ability to process samples, provide test results, bill payors or patients, provide customer support services, conduct research and development activities, process and prepare company financial information, and manage various general and administrative aspects of our business, and may damage our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we face increased cybersecurity risks and potential disruption to our technology infrastructure due to the number of employees that are working remotely as a result of remote work policies and other hybrid work arrangements. Increased levels of remote access create additional opportunities for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities, and employees may be more susceptible to phishing and social engineering attempts.
If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems, our business operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Information technology (IT) and communication systems are an important part of our business operations. These IT and communications systems support a variety of functions, including sample processing, tracking, quality control, customer service and support, billing, research and development activities, and various general and administrative activities. The availability of our products and services and fulfillment of our customer contracts depends on the continuing operation of our IT and communication systems. Our IT and communication systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to power outages, hardware failures, computer viruses, attacks by computer hackers, telecommunication failures, user errors, catastrophes or other unforeseen events. Our IT and communication systems also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with system implementation, integration, upgrades or system migration work that takes place from time to time. If we were to experience a prolonged system disruption in the IT and communication systems that involve our interactions with customers, providers or suppliers, it could result in the loss of sales and customers and significant incremental costs, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, security breaches of our IT systems could result in the misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information belonging to us or to our employees, partners, customers or suppliers, which could result in our suffering significant financial or reputational damage.
Each of our tests is processed in a single one of our laboratory facilities, and any loss or prolonged interruption of our ability to use these laboratories or failure to maintain their operation in compliance with applicable regulations would seriously harm our business.
We rely on a CLIA-certified facility in Salt Lake City, Utah to perform most of our tests; a CLIA-certified laboratory in South San Francisco, California to perform our Foresight and Prequel tests; a single laboratory facility in Cologne, Germany to perform and produce our EndoPredict test kits; a CLIA-certified laboratory in Mason, Ohio to perform our GeneSight test; and a laboratory in La Jolla, California to perform our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA test. We also plan to open new laboratories in South San Francisco, California, San Diego, California and west Salt Lake City, Utah. Our laboratories and the equipment we use to perform our tests would be difficult to replace and may require significant lead time to replace and qualify for use if they become inoperable. Some of our laboratories are located near active earthquake fault lines and in a region affected by wildfires and flooding. We currently have no backup or redundant facility to perform each of our tests. In the event any of our testing facilities were to lose its CLIA certification or other required certifications or licenses or were affected by a pandemic or man-made or natural disaster, such as an earthquake, severe weather, flooding, rising sea levels, other physical effects of climate change, power outages or contamination, we would be unable to continue our business, with respect to the tests performed at the particular facility or overall, at current levels to meet customer demands for a significant period of time. Although we maintain insurance on these facilities, including business interruption insurance, it may not be adequate to protect us from all potential losses if these facilities were damaged or destroyed. In addition, any interruption in our business would result in a loss of goodwill, including damage to our reputation. If our business were interrupted, it would seriously harm our business. The inability to open the planned facilities in South San Francisco, California, San Diego, California and west Salt Lake City, Utah, delays in opening such facilities or the failure to obtain any required permits, licenses, or certifications could result in increased costs, limit our ability to keep up with the demand for our products, and prevent us from realizing the intended benefits of these new facilities and our future laboratories.
We depend on a limited number of third parties, or, in some cases, single-source suppliers, for equipment, reagents and other supplies. If these supplies become unavailable or are disrupted, including as a result of COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it, then we may not be able to successfully perform our research or operate our business on a timely basis or at all.
We currently rely on a small number of suppliers, or, in some cases, single-source suppliers, to provide our gene sequencing equipment, content enrichment equipment, multiplex protein analysis equipment, robots, and specialty reagents and other laboratory supplies required in connection with our testing and research and development activities. We believe that currently there are limited alternative suppliers of the equipment, robots, reagents and certain other supplies that we use in our business. The equipment, robots, reagents or other supplies may not remain available in commercial quantities at acceptable costs. If we are unable to obtain when needed additional or alternative equipment or robots, or an adequate supply of reagents or other ingredients or supplies at commercially reasonable rates, our ability to continue to identify genes and perform testing would be adversely affected. In addition, the loss of a single-source supplier or the failure to perform by a single-source supplier could have a disruptive effect on our business, including our ability to perform testing, and could adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19 or the spread of another disease globally could further adversely affect our manufacturing and supply chain. Parts of our direct and indirect supply chain are located overseas and both international and domestic components have been, and may continue to be, subject to disruption as a result of COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it. We have experienced and may continue to experience a shortage of certain laboratory supplies and equipment, and we may experience a suspension of services from other laboratories or third parties as a result of COVID‑19 or another disease and responses to it. Political, administrative, legislative, legal or regulatory actions in response to COVID‑19 or another disease could create additional supply shortages, disruptions or other uncertainties affecting our research and business. If the supplies and components necessary to manufacture our products become unavailable or are disrupted, including as a result of COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it, then we may not be able to successfully perform our research or operate our business on a timely basis or at all.
Our international business exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
As part of our business strategy, we operate in international markets and have active sales operations in Germany, France, and Japan and production operations in Germany. We also distribute our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test through distributors in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and certain other countries. We may establish additional operations or acquire additional properties outside the United States in order to advance our international sales. Doing business internationally involves a number of risks, including:
•multiple, conflicting and changing laws and regulations such as tax laws, export and import restrictions, employment laws, data privacy laws such as the EU GDPR, regulatory requirements and other governmental approvals, permits and licenses;
•failure by us to obtain regulatory approvals or adequate reimbursement for the use of our tests in various countries;
•ineffective marketing campaigns leading to failure in establishing a viable, profitable, and sustainable presence in our international markets;
•difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;
•managing multiple payor reimbursement regimes, government payors and self-pay systems;
•complexities and difficulties in obtaining protection and enforcing our intellectual property;
•logistics and regulations associated with shipping patient samples, including infrastructure conditions, customs and transportation delays, including compliance with the Office of Foreign Assets Control and other international trade sanctions;
•limits in our ability to penetrate international markets if we are not able to process tests locally;
•financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty collecting accounts receivable and exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
•political and economic instability, including wars, terrorism, and political unrest, outbreak of disease, boycotts, curtailment of trade and other business restrictions;
•regulatory and compliance risks that relate to maintaining accurate information and control over sales and distributors’ activities that may fall within the purview of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practice Act, UK Bribery Act, anti-boycott laws and other anti-corruption laws; and
•risks related to the disruptions caused by COVID-19 or another disease and responses to it.
Any of these factors could significantly harm our international operations and, consequently, our revenues and results of operations. In addition, any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory obligations could impact us in a variety of ways that include, but are not limited to, significant criminal, civil and administrative penalties, including imprisonment of individuals, fines and penalties, denial of export privileges, seizure of shipments, and restrictions on certain business activities. Also, the failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory obligations could result in the disruption of our distribution and sales activities.
Our international operations could be affected by changes in laws, trade regulations, labor and employment regulations, and procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing, reimbursement and marketing of tests, as well as by inter-governmental disputes. Any of these changes could adversely affect our business. Our success internationally will depend, in part, on our ability to develop and implement policies and strategies that are effective in anticipating and managing these and other risks in the countries in which we do business. Failure to manage these and other risks may have a material adverse effect on our operations in any particular country and on our business as a whole.
Ethical, legal and social concerns related to the use of genetic information could reduce demand for our tests.
Genetic testing has raised ethical, legal and social issues regarding privacy rights and the appropriate uses of the resulting information. Governmental authorities could, for social or other purposes, limit or regulate the use of genetic information or genetic testing or prohibit testing for genetic predisposition to certain conditions, particularly for those that have no known cure. Similarly, these concerns may lead patients to refuse to use, or clinicians to be reluctant to order, genomic tests even if permissible; they may also refuse genetic testing due to concerns regarding eligibility for life or other insurance. Ethical and social concerns may also influence U.S. and foreign patent offices and courts with regard to patent protection for technology relevant to our business. Although the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act has criminalized the disallowance of health insurance on the basis of genetic information, modification or retraction of this federal law could reduce public demand for genetic testing. These and other ethical, legal and social concerns may limit market acceptance of our tests or reduce the potential markets for our tests, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We rely on commercial courier delivery services to transport biological materials to our facilities in a timely and cost-efficient manner and if these delivery services are disrupted, our business will be harmed.
Our core business depends on our ability to quickly and reliably deliver test results to our customers. We typically receive biological material for analysis at our laboratory facilities within days of collection from the patient. Disruptions in delivery service, whether due to errors by the courier service, labor disruptions, bad weather, natural disasters, terrorist acts or threats or other reasons, some of which we have experienced in the past, could adversely affect specimen integrity, our ability to process or store samples in a timely manner and to service our customers, and ultimately our reputation and our business. In addition, if we are unable to continue to obtain expedited delivery services on commercially reasonable terms, our operating results may be adversely affected. We also rely on commercial courier delivery services to transport our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test directly to customers and any disruptions in delivery service could adversely affect our ability obtain and process samples in a timely manner and to service our customers.
We face risks associated with currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could adversely affect our operating results.
We receive a portion of our revenues and pay a portion of our expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, such as the Euro, the Swiss franc, the Japanese yen, and the British pound. As a result, we are at risk for exchange rate fluctuations between such foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar, which could affect the results of our operations. If the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency denominated transactions will result in decreased revenues and operating expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2022, our revenues were negatively impacted by approximately $10.4 million due to foreign currency fluctuations. We may not be able to offset adverse foreign currency impact with increased revenues. We do not currently utilize hedging strategies to mitigate foreign currency risk and even if we were to implement hedging strategies to mitigate foreign currency risk, these strategies might not eliminate our exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations and would involve costs and risks of their own, such as ongoing management time and expertise, external costs to implement the strategies and potential accounting implications.
Risks Related to the Development and Commercialization of Our Tests and Test Candidates
Our tests in development may not be clinically effective or may never achieve significant commercial market acceptance and our test offerings that we have recently launched or acquired may not be commercially successful.
We may not succeed in achieving significant commercial market acceptance of our test offerings that we have launched or acquired in recent years or are currently developing. Our ability to successfully develop and commercialize our current tests, as well as any future tests that we may develop or acquire, depend on several factors, including:
•our ability to convince the medical community and consumers of the utility of our tests and their potential advantages over existing tests or other competing products or services;
•our ability to market current and future products in new and existing channels, such as the launch of our SneakPeek Early Gender DNA Test in retail stores;
•our ability to collaborate with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to develop and commercialize companion diagnostic tests for their therapeutic drugs and drug candidates;
•the agreement by third-party payors to reimburse our tests, the scope and extent of which will affect patients’ willingness or ability to pay for our tests and will likely heavily influence physicians’ decisions to recommend our tests; and/or
•the willingness of physicians to utilize our diagnostic tests, which can be difficult to interpret as our tests only predict as to a probability, not certainty, that a tested individual will develop the disease, will benefit from a particular therapy or has an aggressive form of the disease that the test is intended to predict.
These factors present obstacles to commercial acceptance of our tests, which we would have to spend substantial time and money to overcome, if we can do so at all. Our inability to successfully do so would harm our business.
In addition, we may experience research and development and regulatory challenges that could delay or prevent the development and commercialization of new test offerings, such as FirstGene and Precise MRD. The tests we enhance or develop may not be clinically effective in clinical trials or commercially, or may not ultimately meet our desired target product profile, be offered at acceptable cost and with the test performance metrics necessary to address the relevant clinical need or commercial opportunity. We also may experience difficulties completing the clinical development of any new or enhanced product, or establishing or maintaining the collaborative relations that may be essential to our clinical development and commercialization efforts. Clinical development requires large numbers of patient specimens and, for certain products, require large, prospective, and controlled clinical trials. We may not be able to enroll patients or collect a sufficient number of appropriate specimens in a timely manner, or we may experience delays during clinical development due to slower than anticipated enrollment, or due to changes in study design or other unforeseen circumstances, or we may be unable to afford or manage the large-sized clinical trials that some of our planned future products may require.
In addition, the publication of clinical data in peer-reviewed journals is an important step in commercializing and obtaining reimbursement for tests such as ours, and our inability to control when, if ever, results are published may delay or limit our ability to derive sufficient revenues from any test that is the subject of a study. Peer-reviewed publications regarding our tests may be limited by many factors, including delays in the completion of, poor design of, or lack of compelling data from, clinical studies, as well as delays in the review, acceptance and publication process. If our tests or the technology underlying our current or future tests do not receive sufficient favorable exposure in peer-reviewed publications, the rate of clinician adoption of our tests and positive reimbursement coverage determinations for our tests could be negatively affected.
If we do not compete effectively with scientific and commercial competitors, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our tests, increase our revenue or achieve and sustain profitability.
The clinical laboratory and genetics testing fields are intense, highly competitive and characterized by rapid technological change, frequent new product introductions, reimbursement challenges, emerging competition, intellectual property disputes and litigation, price competition, aggressive marketing practices, evolving industry standards, and changing customer preferences. Our competitors in the United States and abroad are numerous and include, among others, major diagnostic companies, reference laboratories, molecular diagnostic firms, direct-to-consumer genetic companies, low-priced competitors, clinical laboratories, universities and other research institutions. Some of our competitors and potential competitors have larger customer bases, greater brand recognition and market penetration, better selling and marketing capabilities, more experience with third-party payors and considerably greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do, which has allowed and may continue to allow these competitors to discover important genes and determine their function before we do, respond more quickly to changes in customer preferences, devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their tests than we do, sell their tests at prices designed to win significant levels of market share, or obtain reimbursement from more third-party payors and at higher prices than we do. We could be adversely affected if we do not discover genes, proteins or biomarkers and characterize their function, develop tests based on these discoveries, obtain required regulatory and other approvals and launch these tests and their related services before our competitors. We may also not be able to keep pace with the rapid technological changes in our industry, or properly leverage new technologies to achieve or sustain competitive advantages in our tests, systems and processes. We also expect to encounter significant competition with respect to any tests that we may develop or commercialize. Those companies that bring to market new tests before we do may achieve a significant competitive advantage in marketing and commercializing their tests. We may not be able to develop additional tests successfully and we or our licensors may not obtain or enforce patents covering these tests that provide protection against our competitors. Moreover, our competitors may succeed in developing tests that circumvent our technologies or tests. Furthermore, our competitors may succeed in developing technologies or tests that are more effective or less costly than those developed by us or that would render our technologies or tests less competitive or obsolete. Increased competition and cost-saving initiatives on the part of governmental entities and third-party payors are likely to result in pricing pressures, which could harm our sales, profitability or ability to gain market share. We expect competition to intensify in the fields in which we are involved as technical advances in these fields occur and become more widely known and changes in intellectual property laws generate challenges to our intellectual property position.
If our current research collaborators or scientific advisors terminate their relationships with us or develop relationships with a competitor, our ability to discover genes, proteins, and biomarkers, and to validate and commercialize tests could be adversely affected.
We have relationships with research collaborators at academic and other institutions who conduct research at our request. These research collaborators are not our employees. As a result, we have limited control over their activities and, except as otherwise required by our collaboration agreements, can expect only limited amounts of their time to be dedicated to our activities. Our ability to discover genes, proteins, and biomarkers involved in human disease and validate and commercialize tests will depend in part on the continuation of these collaborations. If any of these collaborations are terminated, we may not be able to enter into other acceptable collaborations. In addition, our existing collaborations may not be successful.
Our research collaborators and scientific advisors may have relationships with other commercial entities, some of which could compete with us. Our research collaborators and scientific advisors sign agreements which provide for the confidentiality of our proprietary information. We may not, however, be able to maintain the confidentiality of our technology and other confidential information related to all collaborations. The dissemination of our confidential information to third parties could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Reimbursement
If the government and third-party payors fail to provide coverage and adequate payment for our existing and future tests, if any, our revenue and prospects for profitability will be harmed.
In both domestic and foreign markets, sales of our tests or any future tests will depend in large part, upon the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors. Such third-party payors include state and federal health care programs such as Medicare, managed care organizations, private health insurers and other organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly attempting to contain health care costs by demanding price discounts and limiting both coverage regarding which tests they will pay for and the amounts that they will pay for existing and new tests. We have experienced coverage limitations and price reductions for many of our products, including for our GeneSight Psychotropic Mental Health Medication Test, and we may continue to experience future coverage limitations and price reductions from CMS, managed care organizations, and other third-party payors. The fact that a test has been approved for reimbursement in the past, for any particular indication or in any particular jurisdiction, does not guarantee that such a test will be approved or remain approved for reimbursement, that the reimbursement amount approved for such test will not be reduced in the future, or that similar or additional tests will be approved for reimbursement in the future. Historically, we have not received reimbursement from third-party payors or payment from patients for many of our tests. Moreover, there can be no assurance that any new tests we have launched or may launch will be reimbursed at rates that are comparable to the rates that we historically obtained for our existing product portfolio. As a result, third-party payors may not cover or provide adequate payment for our current or future tests to enable us to maintain past levels of revenue or profitability with respect to such tests. Further, third-party reimbursement might not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on investment in product development.
In addition, under PAMA, Medicare reimbursement for any given test is based on the weighted-median of the payments made by private payors for such test, rendering private payor payment levels even more significant. As a result, future Medicare payments may fluctuate more often and become subject to the willingness of private payors to recognize the value of tests generally and any given test individually. On December 10, 2021, Congress passed the Protecting Medicare and American Farmers from Sequester Cuts Act, which included a provision that delays the next PAMA reporting period for clinical laboratory tests that are not advanced diagnostic tests to January 1, 2023 through March 31, 2023. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023, enacted on December 29, 2022, delayed the next PAMA reporting period for clinical laboratory tests that are not advanced diagnostic tests to January 1, 2024 through March 31, 2024. In addition, the next round of rate cuts will not be implemented until 2024, with tests receiving cuts of up to 15 percent a year from 2024 through 2026. Any declines in average selling prices of our products due to pricing pressures may have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Third-party payors may also dispute our billing or coding and may decide to deny payment or recoup payment for testing that they contend to have been not medically necessary, against their coverage determinations, or for which they have otherwise overpaid, and we may be required to refund reimbursements already received. We have also experienced delays or denials of coverage for failure to adequately comply with procedural requirements imposed by third-party payors to obtain reimbursement. We also periodically receive and respond to requests for recoupment from third-party payors in the ordinary course of business. When a third-party payor denies payment for testing, we often are not able to collect payment from the patient, and therefore, we do not receive any revenue from our testing. In addition, if a third-party payor successfully proves that payment for prior testing was in breach of contract or otherwise contrary to law, they may recoup payment, which amounts could be significant and would impact our results of operations. We may also continue to negotiate and settle with third-party payers in order to resolve allegations of overpayment.
Third-party payors, such as commercial health insurers and government payors and programs, may also adopt requirements, programs or policies that may restrict or adversely affect our business. For example, in September 2022, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) promulgated certain regulatory amendments to the California Prenatal Screening (PNS) Program that made the PNS Program the exclusive means of obtaining cfDNA trisomy screening in California. These regulatory amendments set a price that participating laboratories would receive for each cfDNA test that was substantially lower than laboratories had previously charged, and prohibited laboratories that did not contract with CDPH from participating in the PNS Program and from offering or performing cfDNA trisomy screening in California. As we are not currently a participating laboratory under the PNS Program, we would be prohibited from offering or performing our Prequel screening test in California. On September 16, 2022, we filed jointly with Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (Labcorp) a writ petition in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Francisco, against the CDPH and its Director challenging CDPH’s ability to make the PNS Program the exclusive means of obtaining cfDNA trisomy screening in California. On September 16, 2022, we also moved jointly with Labcorp for a preliminary injunction to enjoin the implementation and enforcement of the new exclusivity regulation. On November 2, 2022, the Superior Court granted our motion for a preliminary injunction, which allowed us to continue to offer our Prequel screening test in California. On December 17, 2022, we filed jointly with Labcorp a motion for judgment on our writ, through which we are seeking a permanent injunction to enjoin the implementation and enforcement of the new exclusivity regulation. A hearing on that motion is scheduled for March 21, 2023. CDPH has also commenced the process of appealing the preliminary injunction, though no hearing date has been set, and that appeal may be mooted by the Superior Court’s decision on our motion for judgment on the writ prior to any hearing. Pending the outcome of this ongoing litigation, we cannot be certain that we will be able to continue offering or performing our Prequel screening test in California. If the exclusivity regulation is ultimately determined to be valid and we are either not able to offer our Prequel screening test in California at all, or must do so through the PNS Program at lower rates than we currently charge, our financial and operating results will likely be adversely affected. In addition, although the implementation and enforcement of the exclusivity regulation has been preliminarily enjoined, the possibility that we may be unable to continue to offer our Prequel screening test in California has had a chilling effect on sales of our Prequel screening test in California.
U.S. and foreign governments continue to propose and pass legislation designed to reduce the cost of health care. For example, in some foreign markets, the government controls the pricing of many health care products. We expect that there will continue to be federal and state proposals to implement governmental controls or impose health care requirements. In addition, the Medicare program and increasing emphasis on managed care in the United States will continue to put pressure on product pricing. Cost control initiatives could decrease the price that we would receive for any tests in the future, which would limit our revenue and profitability.
Failure to comply with laws and regulations related to submission of claims for our services could result in significant monetary damages and penalties and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and corresponding foreign reimbursement programs.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing the submission of claims for payment for our services, such as those relating to: coverage of our services under Medicare, Medicaid and other state, federal and foreign health care programs; the amounts that we may bill for our services; and the party to which we must submit claims. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in our inability to receive payment for our services or in attempts by state and federal health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, to recover payments already made. Submission of claims in violation of these laws and regulations can result in recoupment of payments already received, substantial civil monetary penalties, and exclusion from state and federal health care programs, and can subject us to liability under the federal False Claims Act and similar laws. The failure to report and return an overpayment to the Medicare or Medicaid program within 60 days of identifying its existence can give rise to liability under the False Claims Act. Further, a government agency could attempt to hold us liable for causing the improper submission of claims by another entity for services that we performed if we were found to have knowingly participated in the arrangement at issue.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are not able to protect our proprietary technology, others could compete against us more directly, which would harm our business.
As of December 31, 2022, our patent portfolio included issued patents owned or licensed by us and numerous patent applications in the United States and other countries with claims protecting our intellectual property rights. Our commercial success will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain additional patents and licenses and protect our existing patent position, both in the United States and in other countries, for compositions, processes, methods and other inventions that we believe are patentable. Our ability to preserve our trade secrets, proprietary data bases and other intellectual property is also important to our long-term success. If our intellectual property is not adequately protected, competitors may be able to use our technologies and erode or negate any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability. Patents may also issue to third parties which could interfere with our ability to bring our tests to market. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as U.S. laws, and we may encounter significant problems in protecting our proprietary rights in these countries.
The patent positions of diagnostic companies, including our patent position, are generally highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions, and, therefore, any patents issued to us may be challenged, deemed unenforceable, invalidated or circumvented. We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our proprietary technologies and any future tests are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets. Our patent applications may never issue as patents, and the claims of any issued patents may not afford meaningful protection for our technology or tests. In addition, any patents issued to us or our licensors may be challenged, and subsequently narrowed, invalidated or circumvented.
Where necessary, we may initiate litigation to enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights. Any such litigation may require us to spend a substantial amount of time and money and could distract management from our day-to-day operations. Moreover, there is no assurance that we will be successful in any such litigation.
The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain, and we cannot ensure that:
•we or our licensors were the first to make the inventions covered by each of our patent applications;
•we or our licensors were the first to file patent applications for these inventions;
•others will not independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;
•any of our or our licensors’ patent applications will result in issued patents;
•any of our or our licensors’ patents will be valid or enforceable;
•any patents issued to us or our licensors and collaborators will provide a basis for commercially viable tests, will provide us with any competitive advantages or will not be challenged by third parties;
•we will develop additional proprietary technologies or tests that are patentable;
•the patents of others will not have an adverse effect on our business; or
•our patents or patents that we license from others will survive legal challenges and remain valid and enforceable.
If a third party files a patent application with claims to subject matter we have invented, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may declare interference between competing patent applications. If an interference is declared, we may not prevail in the interference. If the other party prevails in the interference, we may be precluded from commercializing services or tests based on the invention or may be required to seek a license. A license may not be available to us on commercially acceptable terms, if at all.
We also rely on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technologies and databases, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and others to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy if unauthorized disclosure of confidential information occurs. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive position.
If we are subject to litigation or other proceedings arising from a claim of infringement of the intellectual property of a third party, we might incur significant costs and delays in test introduction or we could be prevented from using technologies incorporated in our tests.
Our tests may also conflict with patents that have been or may be granted to others. Our industry includes many organizations that have or are seeking to discern biomarkers and develop genomic, proteomic and other technologies. To the extent any patents are issued or have been issued to those organizations, the risk increases that the sale of our tests currently being marketed or under development may give rise to claims of patent infringement. Others may have filed and in the future are likely to file patent applications covering biomarkers that are similar or identical to our tests. Any of these patent applications may have priority over our patent applications and these entities or persons could bring legal proceedings against us seeking damages or seeking to enjoin us from testing or marketing our tests. Patent litigation is costly, and even if we prevail, the cost of such litigation could have a material adverse effect on us. If the other parties in any such actions are successful, in addition to any liability for damages, we could be required to cease the infringing activity or obtain a license. Any license required may not be available to us on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Our failure to obtain a license to any technology that we may require to commercialize our tests could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, we could experience delays in product introductions or sales growth while we attempt to develop non-infringing alternatives.
We believe that there has been, and may continue to be, significant litigation in the industry regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. On December 21, 2020, Ravgen, Inc. filed a lawsuit against us and our wholly owned subsidiary, Myriad Women's Health, in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging infringement of two patents relating to blood collection tubes and non-invasive prenatal testing analysis. This litigation and any other intellectual property litigation that we may become involved with in the future could consume a substantial portion of our managerial and financial resources. If any such litigation is resolved adversely to us, we could be required to pay damages, cease the infringing activity or pay an ongoing licensing fee for our prenatal tests, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Additionally, third parties may claim that the branding of our products infringes the trademarks, service marks, trade names or otherwise misappropriates or dilutes those third parties’ rights. If we are found to be liable or to have infringed upon those third parties' rights, we may be required to pay damages and rebrand the infringing products. Rebranding can be expensive and time-consuming and may lead to the loss of brand equity or goodwill associated with the rebranded products.
If we fail to comply with our obligations under license or technology agreements with third parties, we could lose license rights that are critical to our business.
We license intellectual property that is important to our business, including licenses underlying the technology in our tests, and in the future, we may enter into additional agreements that provide us with licenses to valuable intellectual property or technology. These licenses impose various royalty payments, milestones, and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with any of these obligations, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license. Termination by the licensor would cause us to lose valuable rights, and could prevent us from distributing our current tests, or inhibit our ability to commercialize future test candidates. Our business would suffer if any current or future licenses terminate, if the licensors fail to abide by the terms of the license, if the licensors fail to prevent infringement by third parties, if the licensed patents or other rights are found to be invalid, unenforceable or infringe upon third party patents, or if we are unable to enter into necessary licenses on acceptable terms.
We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets.
As is commonplace in our industry, we employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or genetic testing, diagnostic, biotechnology or other health care companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees or consultants have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims, and if we are unsuccessful, we could be required to pay substantial damages and could lose rights to important intellectual property. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
If we fail to adequately protect our trademarks, service marks, trade names and trade dress, we may lose goodwill and brand equity associated with our business.
Our registered and unregistered trademarks, service marks, or trade names could be infringed by third parties. Enforcing our rights against such third parties can be expensive and distracting. If we fail to effectively enforce such rights against third parties, our trademark, service mark or trade name rights, and the associated goodwill and brand equity, could be lost.
We file applications for registration of various marks associated with our brands in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. We may fail to successfully register these marks. Additionally, once a mark is registered, we may fail to pay all fees and attend to all formalities required to maintain the registration. Failure to obtain or maintain registration of our marks could make those marks harder to enforce and reduce the liability of an infringer even if we are able to successfully enforce such rights.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
If we fail to comply with the complex federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that apply to our business, we could suffer consequences that could materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our operations are subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, all of which are subject to change. These laws and regulations currently include, among other things:
•Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, which requires that laboratories obtain certification from the federal government, and state licensure laws;
•U.S. Food and Drug Administration laws and regulations that apply to medical devices such as our companion diagnostics;
•Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which imposes comprehensive federal standards with respect to the privacy and security of protected health information and requirements for the use of certain standardized electronic transactions; amendments to HIPAA under HITECH, which strengthened and expanded HIPAA privacy and security compliance requirements, increased penalties for violators, extended enforcement authority to state attorneys general and imposed requirements for breach notification;
•state laws regulating genetic testing and protecting the privacy of genetic test results, as well as state laws protecting the privacy and security of health information and personal data and mandating reporting of breaches to affected individuals and state regulators;
•the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, arranging for, or recommending of an item or service that is reimbursable, in whole or in part, by a federal health care program;
•the Eliminating Kickbacks in Recovery Act of 2018 (EKRA), which is an all-payor anti-kickback prohibition on, among other things, knowingly and willfully paying or offering any remuneration directly or indirectly to induce a referral of an individual to a clinical laboratory;
•the federal physician self-referral prohibition (Stark Law or the Physician Self-Referral Law), which, absent an exception, prohibits a physician from making a referral for certain designated health services, including clinical laboratory services, if the physician or an immediate family member of the physician has an applicable financial relationship with the entity providing the designated health services;
•the federal False Claims Act, which imposes liability on any person or entity that, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to the federal government;
•the federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibits, among other things, the offering or transfer of remuneration to a Medicare or state health care program beneficiary if the person knows or should know it is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner, or supplier of services reimbursable by Medicare or a state health care program, unless an exception applies;
•other federal and state fraud and abuse laws, such as anti-kickback laws, prohibitions on self-referral, and false claims acts, which may extend to services reimbursable by any third-party payor, including private insurers;
•the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires medical device manufactures to track and report to the federal government certain payments and other transfers of value made to physicians, other health care professionals, teaching hospitals and ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
•Section 216 of the federal Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, which requires the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to set Medicare rates for clinical laboratory testing based on private payor data reported by applicable laboratories;
•the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, which prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making payments in violation of law to non-U.S. government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or securing any other improper advantage;
•state laws that impose reporting and other compliance-related requirements; and
•similar foreign laws and regulations that apply to us in the countries in which we operate.
We may also be subject to or affected by current or future federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, including laws relating to reproductive health care, which could restrict our business, reduce demand for our products, and adversely affect our operations, revenue, and results of operations.
As a clinical laboratory, our business practices may face heightened scrutiny from government enforcement agencies such as the Department of Justice, the Office of Inspector General for the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG), and CMS. The OIG has issued fraud alerts in recent years, including a fraud alert relating to speaker programs in November 2020, that identify certain arrangements between medical device and drug companies and referring physicians as implicating the Anti-Kickback Statute. Moreover, the provision of payments or other items of value by a clinical laboratory to a referral source could be prohibited under the federal self-referral prohibition, commonly known as the Stark Law or the Physician Self-Referral Law, unless the arrangement meets all criteria of an applicable exception. The government has actively enforced these laws against clinical laboratories in recent years.
These laws and regulations are complex and are subject to interpretation by the courts and by government agencies. Our failure to comply could lead to civil or criminal penalties, exclusion from participation in state and federal health care programs, or prohibitions or restrictions on our laboratories’ ability to provide or receive payment for our services. We believe that we are in material compliance with all statutory and regulatory requirements, but there is a risk that one or more government agencies could take a contrary position, or that a private party could file suit under the qui tam provisions of the federal False Claims Act or a similar state law. Such occurrences, regardless of their outcome, could damage our reputation and adversely affect important business relationships with third parties, including managed care organizations, and other private third-party payors.
The growth of our business and our expansion outside of the United States may increase the potential of violating similar foreign laws or our internal policies and procedures. The risk of us being found in violation of these or other laws and regulations is further increased by the fact that many have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Any action brought against us for violation of these or other laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Any of the foregoing consequences could seriously harm our business and our financial results.
Our actual or perceived failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations could lead to government enforcement actions, private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our business.
We are subject to domestic and international data protection laws and regulations that address privacy and data security and may affect our collection, use, storage, and transfer of personal information. The legislative and regulatory landscape for data protection continues to evolve, and in recent years there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data security issues with the potential to affect our business. In the U.S., numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information. Failure to comply with data protection laws and regulations, where applicable, could result in government enforcement actions, which could include civil or criminal penalties, private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. For example, California has enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which went into effect in January of 2020. The CCPA establishes a new privacy framework for covered businesses by creating an expanded definition of personal information, establishing new data privacy rights for California residents, and creating a new and potentially severe statutory damages framework for violations of the CCPA and for businesses that fail to implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. Additionally in 2020, California voters passed the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, effective January 1, 2023. The CPRA significantly amends the CCPA, potentially resulting in further uncertainty, additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply and additional potential for harm and liability for failure to comply. Among other things, the CPRA established a new regulatory authority, the California Privacy Protection Agency, which is tasked with enacting new regulations under the CPRA and will have expanded enforcement authority. Effective in 2023, Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah will have similar data protection laws, and other U.S. states have proposals under consideration, increasing the regulatory compliance risk.
Numerous other countries have, or are developing, laws governing the collection, use and transmission of personal information as well. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), became effective in 2018 and imposed a broad data protection framework that expanded the scope of EU data protection law, including to non-EU entities meeting the jurisdictional requirements that process, or control the processing of, personal data relating to individuals located in the EU, including clinical trial data. The GDPR sets out a number of requirements for controllers and/or processors, as applicable, that must be complied with when handling the personal data of EU based data subjects, including: providing expanded disclosures about how their personal data will be used; higher standards for organizations to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent or have another legal basis in place to justify their data processing activities; the obligation to appoint data protection officers in certain circumstances; new rights for individuals to be “forgotten” and rights to data portability, as well as enhanced current rights (e.g., access requests); the principal of accountability and demonstrating compliance through policies, procedures, training and audit; and a new mandatory data breach regime. In particular, medical or health data, genetic data and biometric data are all classified as “special category” data under the GDPR and afford greater protection and require additional compliance obligations. Further, EU member states have a broad right to impose additional conditions—including restrictions—on these data categories. This is because the GDPR allows EU member states to derogate from the requirements of the GDPR mainly in regard to specific processing situations (including special category data and processing for scientific or statistical purposes).
The GDPR is applicable to part of our business and has increased our responsibility and liability in relation to personal data that we process, and we may be required to put in place additional procedures to comply. The GDPR is complex and regulatory guidance continues to evolve. Furthermore, national GDPR variations, including the fields of clinical study and other health-related information may raise our costs of compliance and result in greater legal risks.
We are also subject to evolving GDPR requirements on data export, because we transfer data to third countries outside of the EU that are not deemed “adequate.” The GDPR only permits exports of personal data outside of the EU to “non-adequate” countries where there is a suitable data transfer mechanism in place to safeguard personal data (e.g., the EU Commission approved Standard Contractual Clauses). On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU, or the CJEU, issued a landmark opinion in the case Maximilian Schrems vs. Facebook (Case C-311/18) (Schrems II). This decision calls into question certain data transfer mechanisms as between the EU member states and the U.S. The CJEU is the highest court in Europe and the Schrems II decision heightens the burden to assess U.S. national security laws on their business, and future actions of EU data protection authorities are difficult to predict at this time. Consequently, there is some risk of any data transfers from the EU being halted. If we have to rely on third parties to carry out services for us, including processing personal data on our behalf, we are required under GDPR to enter into contractual arrangements to flow down or help ensure that these third parties only process such data according to our instructions and have sufficient security measures in place. Any security breach or non-compliance with our contractual terms or breach of applicable law by such third parties could result in enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause customers to lose trust in us, which would have an adverse impact on our reputation and business. Any contractual arrangements requiring the processing of personal data from the EU to us in the U.S. will require greater scrutiny and assessments as required under Schrems II and may have an adverse impact on cross-border transfers of personal data, or increase costs of compliance. The GDPR provides an enforcement authority to impose large penalties for noncompliance, including the potential for fines of up to €20 million or 4% of the annual global revenues of the noncompliant company, whichever is greater.
Applicable data privacy and data protection laws may conflict with each other, and by complying with the laws or regulations of one jurisdiction, we may find that we are violating the laws or regulations of another jurisdiction. Despite our efforts, we may not have fully complied in the past and may not in the future. That could require us to incur significant expenses, which could significantly affect our business. Failure to comply with data protection laws may expose us to risk of enforcement actions taken by data protection authorities or other regulatory agencies, private rights of action in some jurisdictions, and potential significant penalties if we are found to be non-compliant. Furthermore, the number of government investigations related to data security incidents and privacy violations continue to increase and government investigations typically require significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our business and reputation.
We may from time to time be subject to government investigation(s), the unfavorable outcome of which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may from time to time be subject to government investigations, which may divert management resources and attention, cause us to incur substantial costs, and/or result in negative publicity, and any unfavorable outcome arising from such investigation may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. For example, in June 2016, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Crescendo Bioscience, LLC (formerly known as Crescendo Bioscience, Inc.) (CBI), received a subpoena from the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services requesting that CBI produce documents relating to entities that received payment from CBI for the collection and processing of blood specimens for testing, including a named unrelated company, healthcare providers and other third-party entities. On January 30, 2020, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California unsealed a qui tam complaint, filed on April 16, 2016 against CBI, alleging violations of the federal and California False Claims Acts and the California Insurance Fraud Prevention Act (CIFPA). On January 22, 2020, after a multi-year investigation into CBI’s and the Company’s alleged conduct, the United States declined to intervene. On January 27, 2020, the State of California likewise filed its notice of declination. On April 1, 2022, we settled the qui tam lawsuit pursuant to which we paid a total of $45.25 million to the United States and the State of California and $2.75 million to relator's counsel. The qui tam lawsuit was formally dismissed by the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California on May 4, 2022. We may be subject to future claims or investigations under the Federal False Claims Act or a similar state law, and any unfavorable outcome arising from such claims or investigation could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Changes in health care policy could increase our costs, decrease our revenues and impact sales of and reimbursement for our tests.
In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, collectively called the ACA, became law. This law substantially changed the way health care is financed by both government and private third-party payors and continues to significantly impact our business and operations in ways we cannot currently predict. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and as a result, certain sections of the ACA have not been fully implemented or were effectively repealed. However, following several years of litigation in the federal courts, in June 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the ACA when it dismissed a legal challenge to the ACA’s constitutionality. Further legislative and regulatory changes under the ACA remain possible. The federal administration under President Biden has signaled that it plans to build on the ACA and expand the number of people who are eligible for health insurance subsidies under it. Future changes or additions to the ACA or the Medicare and Medicaid programs, such as changes stemming from other health care reform measures, especially with regard to health care access, financing or other legislation in individual states, could have a material adverse effect on the health care industry in the United States. The uncertainty around the future of the ACA, and in particular the impact to reimbursement levels and the number of insured individuals, may lead to delay in the purchasing decisions of our customers, which may in turn negatively impact our product sales. Further, if reimbursement levels are inadequate, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition to the ACA, there will continue to be proposals by legislators at both the federal and state levels, regulators and private third-party payors to reduce costs while expanding individual health care benefits. Certain of these changes could impose additional limitations on the prices we will be able to charge for our tests or the amounts of reimbursement available for our tests from governmental agencies or private third-party payors. Any future changes to legal or regulatory requirements or new cost containment initiatives could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, and cash flows.
Our business could be harmed by the loss, suspension, or other restriction on a license, certification, or accreditation, or by the imposition of a fine or penalties, under CLIA, its implementing regulations, or other state, federal and foreign laws and regulations affecting licensure or certification, or by future changes in these laws or regulations.
The diagnostic testing industry is subject to extensive laws and regulations, many of which have not been interpreted by the courts. CLIA requires virtually all laboratories to be certified by the federal government and mandates compliance with various operational, personnel, facilities administration, quality and proficiency testing requirements intended to ensure that testing services are accurate, reliable and timely. CLIA certification is also a prerequisite to be eligible to bill state and federal health care programs, as well as many private third-party payors, for laboratory testing services. As a condition of CLIA certification, each of our laboratories is subject to survey and inspection every other year, in addition to being subject to additional random inspections. The biennial survey is conducted by CMS, a CMS agent (typically a state agency), or, if the laboratory holds a CLIA certificate of accreditation, a CMS-approved accreditation organization. Sanctions for failure to comply with CLIA requirements, including proficiency testing violations, may include suspension, revocation, or limitation of a laboratory’s CLIA certificate, which is necessary to conduct business, as well as the imposition of significant fines or criminal penalties. In addition, we are subject to regulation under state laws and regulations governing laboratory licensure. Some states have enacted state licensure laws that are more stringent than CLIA. We are also subject to laws and regulations governing our reference laboratory in Germany. Changes in state or foreign licensure laws that affect our ability to offer and provide diagnostic services across state or foreign country lines could materially and adversely affect our business. In addition, state and foreign requirements for laboratory certification may be costly or difficult to meet and could affect our ability to receive specimens from certain states or foreign countries.
Any sanction imposed under CLIA, its implementing regulations, or state or foreign laws or regulations governing licensure, or our failure to renew a CLIA certificate, a state or foreign license, or accreditation, could have a material adverse effect on our business. If the CLIA certificate of any one of our laboratories is revoked, CMS could seek revocation of the CLIA certificates of our other laboratories based on their common ownership or operation, even though they are separately certified.
Changes in the way that the FDA regulates tests performed by laboratories like ours could result in delay or additional expense in offering our tests and tests that we may develop in the future.
Historically, the FDA has exercised enforcement discretion with respect to most LDTs and has generally not required laboratories that furnish LDTs to comply with the agency’s requirements for medical devices (e.g., establishment registration, device listing, quality systems regulations, premarket clearance or premarket approval, and post-market controls). As of December 31, 2022, none of our products other than MyChoice CDx and BRACAnalysis CDx are marketed by us under the FDA's requirements for medical devices. In recent years, however, the FDA publicly announced its intention to regulate certain LDTs and issued two draft guidance documents that set forth a proposed phased-in risk-based regulatory framework that would apply varying levels of FDA oversight to LDTs. However, these guidance documents were not finalized, and the framework was abandoned and replaced by an informal discussion paper reflecting some of the feedback that FDA had received on the proposed LDT regulation. The FDA acknowledged that the January 2017 discussion paper does not represent the formal position of the FDA and is not enforceable. Nevertheless, the FDA wanted to share its synthesis of the feedback that it had received in the hope that it might advance public discussion on future LDT oversight. Notwithstanding the discussion paper, the FDA continues to exercise enforcement discretion and may attempt to regulate certain LDTs on a case-by-case basis at any time, which could result in delay or additional expense in offering our tests and tests that we may develop in the future.
In addition to potential enforcement priority changes from the FDA, for several years bipartisan members of Congress have been negotiating legislation with the FDA and industry stakeholders to regulate in vitro clinical tests including LDTs under a shared FDA/CMS framework. Most recently, reform legislation entitled the Verifying Accurate, Leading-edge IVCT Development (VALID) Act has received increasing congressional support. If enacted, the VALID Act would codify into law the term “in vitro clinical test” (IVCT) to create a new medical product category separate from medical devices that includes products currently regulated as in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) as well as LDTs. The framework would give the FDA the authority to ensure IVCTs are both analytically and clinically valid. CMS would retain the authority to ensure the quality of operations within laboratories. All LDTs on the market prior to enactment of the legislation would be grandfathered and not subject to the new regulation.
It is unclear whether the VALID Act will be passed by Congress in its current form or signed into law by the President. Until the FDA finalizes its regulatory position regarding LDTs through formal notice-and-comment rulemaking, or the VALID Act or other legislation is passed reforming the federal government’s regulation of LDTs, it is unknown how the FDA may attempt to regulate our tests in the future and what testing and data may be required to support any required clearance or approval of our tests by the agency. If the VALID Act is implemented as drafted, or if the FDA were to promulgate regulations governing the development and marketing of LDTs, it could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations.
FDA regulation of our GeneSight Psychotropic test could be disruptive to our business.
As described further above, the FDA has long claimed authority to regulate laboratory-developed tests but has exercised its “enforcement discretion” to limit enforcement of in vitro diagnostic regulatory requirements on this category of products. The FDA has from time to time appeared to increase its attention to the marketing of pharmacogenetic tests. For example, in late 2018, the FDA issued a safety communication regarding “genetic tests that claim results can be used to help physicians identify which antidepressant medication would have increased effectiveness or side effects compared to other antidepressant medications.” This safety communication explained that the FDA had reached out to several firms marketing such pharmacogenetic tests where the FDA believed the relationship between genetic variations and a medication’s effects had not been established, including a warning letter to Inova Genomics Laboratory.
In early 2019, we provided the FDA with clinical evidence and other information to support our GeneSight Psychotropic test. Later that year, the FDA requested changes to the GeneSight test offering. Although we disagreed that changes to the test were required, we submitted a proposal regarding the reporting of GeneSight test results to healthcare providers that we believed addressed the FDA’s principal concerns and would not affect the benefits that we believe are provided by the GeneSight test.
Since submitting our proposal to the FDA, we engaged with our trade association in their efforts to defend the offering of pharmacogenomic tests as LDTs and to monitor broader developments across the stakeholder community. In response to public letters from the national laboratory trade association and patient groups, on February 20, 2020, the FDA announced a new “collaboration between FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health and Center for Drug Evaluation and Research intended to provide the agency’s view of the state of the current science in pharmacogenetics.” Although the announcement again asserted that some pharmacogenetic test offerings may be potentially dangerous, the agency also acknowledged that pharmacogenetic testing “offers promise for informing the selection or dosing of some medications for certain individuals.” In conjunction with the announcement, the FDA also released an updated “Table of Pharmacogenetic Associations,” which lists gene-drug interactions that the agency believes are supported by FDA-approved drug labeling and/or “sufficient scientific evidence based on published literature.” The Table has been updated periodically since that time. Based on our discussions with the agency and these developments, we have not implemented our proposal to the FDA regarding the GeneSight test. While we see these developments as signaling a positive shift in the FDA’s approach to regulating pharmacogenetic tests, we cannot predict with certainty the outcome of this matter or its timing, or whether the ultimate form of the GeneSight Psychotropic Mental Health Medication test offering, if it must be changed, will have an adverse effect on our revenues from the test.
Companion and complementary diagnostic tests require FDA approval, and we may not be able to secure such approval in a timely manner or at all.
Our companion and complementary diagnostic products, marketing, sales and development activities and manufacturing processes are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by the FDA pursuant to the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), by comparable agencies in foreign countries, and by other regulatory agencies and governing bodies. Under the FDCA, companion diagnostics must receive FDA clearance or approval before they can be commercially marketed in the U.S. The process of obtaining marketing approval or clearance from the FDA or by comparable agencies in foreign countries for new products could:
•take a significant period of time;
•require the expenditure of substantial resources;
•involve rigorous pre-clinical testing, as well as increased post-market surveillance;
•require changes to products; and
•result in limitations on the indicated uses of products.
Although we have successfully received FDA approval for some tests (e.g., our BRACAnalysis CDx and MyChoice CDx tests), we cannot predict whether or when we will be able to obtain FDA approval for other companion diagnostics that we are developing.
Our companion diagnostic tests are subject to ongoing regulatory compliance obligations and continued regulatory review and the failure to comply with such obligations could result in regulatory enforcement and/or penalties.
Companion diagnostic tests such as BRACAnalysis CDx and MyChoice CDx are subject to ongoing FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authority requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, quality, safety, sale, marketing, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, export, import, conduct of post-marketing studies and submission of safety, efficacy or other post-market information. In addition, we are subject to continued compliance with regulatory requirements applicable to medical devices and in vitro diagnostics. The FDA or other regulatory authorities may take regulatory enforcement or other legal action or may impose consent decrees or withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur with our marketed products. We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and be subject to financial penalties or administrative action.
Our business involves environmental risks that may result in liability for us.
In connection with our research and development activities, we are subject to federal, state and local laws, rules, regulations and policies governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, air emission, effluent discharge, handling and disposal of certain materials, including hazardous materials, biological specimens, chemicals and waste. The cost of compliance with these laws and regulations may become significant and could negatively affect our operating results. Although we believe that we have complied with the applicable laws, regulations and policies in all material respects and have not been required to correct any material noncompliance, we may be required to incur significant costs to comply with environmental and health and safety regulations in the future. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of controlled materials comply with the standards prescribed by state and federal regulations, accidental contamination or injury from these materials may occur. In the event of such an occurrence, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any such liability could exceed our resources or any applicable insurance coverage we may have.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our stock price is highly volatile, and our stock may lose all or a significant part of its value.
The market prices for securities of relevant testing companies have been volatile. This volatility has significantly affected the market prices for these securities for reasons frequently unrelated to the operating performance of the specific companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. The market price for our common stock has fluctuated significantly since public trading commenced in October 1995, and it is likely that the market price will continue to fluctuate in the future. In the year ended December 31, 2022, our stock price ranged from $13.92 per share to $28.45 per share. In addition, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Events or factors that may have a significant impact on our business and on the market price of our common stock include the following:
•major market events, such as the market’s reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic generally and its specific impact on the Company;
•failure of any of our recently launched tests and any new test candidates to achieve commercial success;
•failure to achieve and sustain revenue growth or margins in our business;
•changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems and changes in governmental or private insurer reimbursement levels for our tests;
•introduction of new commercial tests or technological innovations by competitors;
•termination of the licenses underlying our tests;
•delays or other problems with operating our laboratory facilities;
•failure of any of our research and development programs;
•changes in intellectual property laws or the enforcement, validity or expiration of our patents in the United States and foreign countries;
•developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights involving us directly or otherwise affecting the industry as a whole;
•missing or changing the financial guidance we provide;
•failure of analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our company;
•negative publicity, including misinformation, about our company, our tests or the industry in which we operate;
•changes in the government regulatory approval process for our existing and new tests;
•failure to meet estimates or recommendations by securities analysts that cover our common stock;
•issuance of new securities analysts reports or changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts relating to our common stock or the securities of our competitors;
•public concern over our approved tests and any test candidates;
•litigation, including the outcome of existing and new litigation against us;
•government and regulatory investigations;
•our ability to raise additional funds if and when needed;
•future sales or anticipated sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders;
•the timing and amount of any repurchases of our common stock;
•general market conditions, including as a result of changes in the rate of inflation and interest rates;
•seasonal slowness in sales, particularly in the quarters ending September 30th and March 31st, the effects of which may be difficult to understand during periods of growth;
•general perception of the industry and our products;
•economic, health care and diagnostic trends, disasters or crises and other external factors; and
•period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results.
These and other external factors may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares of common stock and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our common stock. In addition, securities class action litigation such as the current stockholder suit pending against the Company discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and certain related matters may affect the market price and demand for our common stock. Such litigation may cause us to incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit regardless of the outcome and could also divert the time and attention of our management. We also may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms, including above any insurance coverage that may be available. Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial damages or fines, damage to our reputation or adverse changes to our offerings or business practices. Furthermore, during the course of litigation, there could be negative public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Our inability to achieve and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our results of operations, our stock price and investor confidence in us.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that companies evaluate and report on the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting. Failure to have effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures could impair our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis and could lead to a restatement of our financial statements. If, as a result of the ineffectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, we cannot provide reliable financial statements, our business decision processes may be adversely affected, our business and results of operations could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and our ability to obtain additional financing, or additional financing on favorable terms, could be adversely affected.
Although we determined that our internal controls over financing reporting were effective as of December 31, 2022, we may in the future identify internal control deficiencies that could rise to the level of a material weakness or uncover other errors in financial reporting. During the course of our evaluation of these material weaknesses, we may identify areas requiring improvement and may be required to design additional enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. There can be no assurance that such remediation efforts will be successful, that our internal control over financial reporting will be effective as a result of these efforts or that any such future deficiencies identified may not be material weaknesses that would be required to be reported in future periods. In addition, we cannot assure you that our independent registered public accounting firm will be able to attest that such internal controls are effective when they are required to do so.
If we fail to remediate any future material weaknesses and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting, you may not be able to rely on the integrity of our financial results, which could result in inaccurate or late reporting of our financial results, as well as delays or the inability to meet our reporting obligations or to comply with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any of these could result in delisting actions by the Nasdaq Stock Market, investigation and sanctions by regulatory authorities, stockholder investigations and lawsuits, and could adversely affect our business and the trading price of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law, provisions in our charter and bylaws and re-adoption of our stockholders’ rights plan, or poison pill, could make a third-party acquisition of us difficult.
Because we are a Delaware corporation, the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us, even if the change in control would be beneficial to stockholders. We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, which prohibits us from engaging in certain business combinations, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws also contain certain provisions that may make a third-party acquisition of us difficult, including:
•a classified Board of Directors, with three classes of directors each serving a staggered three-year term;
•the ability of the Board of Directors to issue preferred stock;
•a 70% super-majority stockholder vote to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation; and
•the inability of our stockholders to call a special meeting or act by written consent.
In the past, we implemented a stockholders’ rights plan, also called a poison pill, which could make it uneconomical for a third party to acquire the Company on a hostile basis. Although the plan expired in July 2011, our Board of Directors could adopt a new plan at any time. The provisions in a stockholders’ rights plan, as well as Section 203, may discourage certain types of transactions in which our stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over the then-current market price, and may limit the ability of our stockholders to approve transactions that they think may be in their best interests.
Future sales and issuances of our common stock would result in dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
From time to time, we may issue additional securities or sell common stock, convertible securities or other securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine. We also plan to continue to grant equity awards that convert into our common stock to employees and directors pursuant to our equity incentive plan. If we sell or issue common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, or common stock is issued pursuant to equity incentive plans, holders of our common stock may be materially diluted. In addition, we may issue common stock or other equity securities in connection with an acquisition or other strategic transaction, which would cause dilution to our existing stockholders. New investors in such transactions could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to changes in the value of our common stock.
We currently intend to retain any future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our Amended Facility restrict our ability to pay dividends. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If few analysts continue coverage of us, the trading of our stock would likely decrease. Even if we do maintain sufficient analyst coverage, there can be no assurance that analysts will provide favorable coverage. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price may decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Our restated bylaws provide that a state court located within the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our restated bylaws provide that a state court located within the State of Delaware (or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This exclusive forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees and may discourage these types of lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find the exclusive forum provision contained in our restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we might incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Item 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters and facilities are located in Salt Lake City, Utah. We currently lease a total of approximately 364,445 square feet of building space in Salt Lake City dedicated to research and development, administration and our laboratory that has received federal certification under CLIA. Activities related to our Oncology and Women’s Health businesses are performed at this location. The leases on our existing Salt Lake City facilities have terms of ten to fifteen years, expiring from 2027 through 2038, and provide for renewal options for up to ten additional years.
We currently lease a total of approximately 111,635 square feet of building space in South San Francisco, California dedicated to administration, research and development and the CLIA-certified laboratory for our Women’s Health business. The leases on our existing South San Francisco facilities have terms of seven to ten years, expiring from 2025 through 2033, and provide for renewal options for up to ten additional years.
We also lease a space in Mason, Ohio, with approximately 24,000 total square feet, which will expire in August 2024. Our GeneSight test is performed at this location in a CLIA-certified laboratory.
We also lease several small office locations, including our manufacturing facility located in Cologne, Germany.
We believe that our existing facilities and equipment are well maintained and in good working condition. We believe our current facilities and those planned in South San Francisco and San Diego, California and west Salt Lake City, Utah will provide adequate capacity for the foreseeable future. For more information on our leased properties, see "Note 13-Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For information regarding certain current legal proceedings, see "Note 12--Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "MYGN."
As of February 23, 2023, there were approximately 96 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees on their behalf.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support our operations and finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our Amended Facility restrict our ability to pay dividends. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects and other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
Unregistered Sales of Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our Board of Directors has previously authorized us to repurchase up to $200.0 million of our outstanding common stock, of which $110.7 million is still available to repurchase as of December 31, 2022. We are authorized to complete the repurchase through open market transactions or through an accelerated share repurchase program, in each case to be executed at management’s discretion based on business and market conditions, stock price, trading restrictions, acquisition activity and other factors. The repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice.
No stock repurchases were made under our stock repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph set forth below compares the annual percentage change in our cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock during a period commencing on December 31, 2017 and ending on December 31, 2022 (as measured by dividing (A) the difference between our share price at the end and the beginning of the measurement period by (B) our share price at the beginning of the measurement period) with the cumulative total return of the Nasdaq Composite Index (IXIC) and the Nasdaq Health Care Index (IXHC) during such period. We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not include cash dividends in the representation of our performance. The price of a share of common stock is based upon the closing price per share as quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on the last trading day of the year shown. The graph lines merely connect year-end values and do not reflect fluctuations between those dates. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2017 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices. The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.
|Myriad Genetics, Inc.||100.00||84.63||79.27||57.55||80.35||42.24|
|NASDAQ Composite Index (IXIC)||100.00||96.12||129.97||186.69||226.63||151.61|
|NASDAQ Health Care Index (IXHC)||100.00||95.83||120.58||156.81||151.25||120.35|
Note: Information used on the graph was obtained from the CRSP Total Return Indexes, a source believed to be reliable, but we are not responsible for any errors or omission in such information.
The performance graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference by means of any general statement incorporating by reference this Annual Report on Form 10-K into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate such information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
Item 6. [RESERVED]
Item 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This section of Management's Discussion and Analysis discusses year-to-year comparisons between the year ended December 31, 2022 and the year ended December 31, 2021. Discussions of comparisons between the year ended December 31, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020 that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K can be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of Part II of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 25, 2022. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise noted, all of the financial information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is consolidated financial information for the Company.
We develop and offer genetic tests that help assess the risk of developing disease or disease progression and guide treatment decisions across medical specialties where genetic insights can significantly improve patient care and lower health care costs. Our mission is to advance health and well-being for all, empower individuals with vital insights and enable healthcare providers to better detect, treat and prevent disease.
Personalized genetic data, digital, and virtual consumer trends are converging to change traditional models of care. We believe significant growth opportunities exist to help patient populations with pressing health care needs through innovative solutions and services. Our focus is on organic growth, deployment of capital, including through opportunistic acquisitions, and the launch of new products. We are focusing our efforts in three key areas where we have specialized products, capabilities, and expertise: Oncology, Women's Health, and Mental Health. We believe our path to organic growth is driven by articulating our clinical differentiation, advancing a new commercial model in our Oncology and Women's Health businesses to reach a broader set of physicians and patients, raising awareness with patients who we believe would benefit from testing, and innovation that improves clinical outcomes, ease of use, and access. By investing in tech-enabled commercial tools, new lab facilities, and advanced automation, we believe we will be able to reduce complexity and cost. With a foundation of financial, commercial, operational and technological strength, we plan to launch new products and capabilities in 2023, such as our unified ordering portal, FirstGene, and, on a research use only basis, Precise MRD, which we expect will help accelerate our growth. We intend to develop and enhance our products to support growth, improve patient and provider experience, and reach more patients of all backgrounds. We are committed to disciplined management of a key set of initiatives to fulfill our mission and drive long-term growth and profitability.
Our consolidated revenues consist primarily of sales of tests through our wholly-owned subsidiaries. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we reported total revenues of $678.4 million, net loss attributable to Myriad Genetics, Inc. stockholders of $112.0 million and basic and diluted loss per share of $1.39.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we took meaningful steps to fulfill our mission and execute our strategic transformation and growth plan. These steps included the following:
•the acquisition of Gateway Genomics, LLC (Gateway), a personal genomics company and developer of consumer genetic tests that gives families insight into their future children;
•the launch of Precise Oncology Solutions, a comprehensive offering designed to help oncologists determine effective and personalized treatment plans for individual patients;
•the appointment of several new leaders to our management team, including a new Chief Commercial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Scientific Officer, and Chief Marketing Officer, as part of our ongoing enhancement of our executive leadership team; and
•total revenue grew 6% year-over-year, excluding contributions from divested businesses. Pharmacogenomics volume growth continued to lead our portfolio, reporting 35% volume growth year-over-year, and hereditary cancer test volumes rebounded in the second half of the year, generating 10% volume growth in the second half of the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the second half of the year ended December 31, 2021.
We have historically experienced seasonality in our testing business. The quarter ended December 31st is generally strong as we typically experience an increase in volumes from patients who have met their annual insurance deductible. Conversely, in the quarter ended March 31st we typically experience a decrease in volumes due to the annual reset of patient deductibles. Additionally, the volume of testing is negatively impacted by the summer season, which is generally reflected in the quarter ended September 30th.
Components of Consolidated Operations
Testing. Our tests are designed to analyze genes and their expression levels to assess an individual’s risk for developing disease, determine a patient’s likelihood of responding to a particular drug, assess a patient’s risk of disease progression, or identify factors which could lead to serious conditions in pregnancy. Revenue is recognized when the communication of test results has occurred.
Other. On July 1, 2021, we divested Myriad RBM, Inc., which provided pharmaceutical and clinical services. As a result, we ceased providing pharmaceutical and clinical services as of that date and no longer generate revenue from these services. Through Myriad RBM, Inc., we provided biomarker discovery, pharmaceutical and clinical services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical research industries utilizing our multiplexed immunoassay technology. We also divested other clinical operations in February 2020. Revenue for these services was recognized at the completion of the pharmaceutical and clinical services.
Costs and Expenses
Expenses. Personnel-related costs for each category of Costs and Expenses include salaries, bonuses, employee benefit costs, employer payroll taxes, and stock-based compensation.
Cost of Testing Revenue. Cost of testing revenue consists primarily of costs related to laboratory supplies, personnel-related costs, and overhead costs.
Cost of Other Revenue. Cost of other revenue consists primarily of costs related to laboratory supplies and personnel-related costs.
Research and Development Expense. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs and laboratory supplies, which includes costs incurred in formulating, improving, validating and creating alternative or modified processes related to and expanding the use of our current test offerings and costs incurred in the discovery, development and validation of our pipeline of test candidates.
Selling, General, and Administrative Expense. Selling, general, and administrative expenses include costs associated with managing and growing our businesses. Selling, general, and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs and third-party costs for sales, marketing, customer service, billing and collection, legal, finance and accounting, information technology, and human resources.
Legal Charges Pending Settlement. Legal charges pending settlement includes accruals related to potential legal settlements.
Goodwill and Long-Lived Asset Impairment Charges. Goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges include the impairment loss recognized on our goodwill or long-lived assets, including impairments recognized on intangible assets and right-of-use (ROU) lease assets.
Other Income (Expense). Other income (expense) includes interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash held in short-term interest-bearing accounts; interest expense associated with our debt and amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount costs; gains or losses on the sale of assets or businesses; and foreign currency gains and losses, realized gain or loss on marketable securities, and other nonrecurring income and expenses.
Results of Operations
|Years Ended December 31,||Change||% of Total Revenue|
|Hereditary Cancer||$||305.5 ||$||316.3 ||$||(10.8)||45 ||%||46 ||%|
|Tumor Profiling||128.6 ||120.9 ||7.7 ||19 ||%||18 ||%|
|Prenatal||116.4 ||106.8 ||9.6 ||17 ||%||15 ||%|
|Pharmacogenomics||127.6 ||93.7 ||33.9 ||19 ||%||13 ||%|
|Autoimmune||0.3 ||28.2 ||(27.9)||— ||%||4 ||%|
|Other||— ||0.5 ||(0.5)||— ||%||— ||%|
|Total testing revenue||678.4 ||666.4 ||12.0 |
|Other revenue||— ||24.2 ||(24.2)||— ||%||4 ||%|
|Total revenue||$||678.4 ||$||690.6 ||$||(12.2)||100 ||%||100 ||%|
Test revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $12.0 million compared to the prior year. Revenue from Pharmacogenomics increased $33.9 million compared to the prior year due primarily to a 35% increase in volume. Prenatal revenues increased $9.6 million due primarily to the acquisition of Gateway and an increase of 7% in average reimbursement per test excluding Gateway. Tumor Profiling revenues increased due to volume increases in our Prolaris and MyChoice CDx products, partially offset by a decrease in international revenue due to changes in foreign exchange rates and a one-time milestone revenue earned in the prior year. Autoimmune revenues decreased $27.9 million compared to the prior year due to the sale of the Myriad Autoimmune business on September 13, 2021. Hereditary Cancer revenues decreased $10.8 million due primarily to changes in foreign exchange rates.
Other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 declined $24.2 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, due to the sale of Myriad RBM, Inc. on July 1, 2021.
Cost of Sales
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Cost of testing revenue||$||202.0 ||$||185.7 ||$||16.3 |
|Cost of testing revenue as a % of revenue||29.8 ||%||27.9 ||%|
|Cost of other revenue||$||— ||$||11.9 ||$||(11.9)|
|Cost of other revenue as a % of revenue||— ||%||49.2 ||%|
The cost of testing revenue as a percentage of revenue increased from 27.9% to 29.8% during the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily driven by the shift in the product mix for the current period and an increase in compensation costs due to an increase in the number of employees and an increase in the average cost per employee during the 2022 period.
The cost of other revenue as a percentage of revenue was 49.2% for the year ended December 31, 2021. The sale of Myriad RBM, Inc. was completed on July 1, 2021, and as a result, there were no corresponding costs during the current period.
Research and Development Expense
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Research and development expense||$||85.4 ||$||81.9 ||$||3.5 |
|Research and development expense as a % of total revenue||12.6 ||%||11.9 ||%|
Research and development expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $3.5 million compared to the prior year primarily due to an increase in compensation expense and information technology related costs, partially offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs and costs incurred in the 2022 period related to our strategic transformation initiatives as compared to the prior year.
Selling, General, and Administrative Expense
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Selling, general, and administrative expense||$||514.7 ||$||537.8 ||$||(23.1)|
|Selling, general, and administrative expense as a % of total revenue||75.9 ||%||77.9 ||%|
Selling, general, and administrative expense decreased by $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year due primarily to a $23.9 million decrease in legal expenses, which was driven in part by the receipt of insurance proceeds for certain legal matters of $12.0 million in 2022 and a decrease in litigation expenses during 2022. Additionally, costs from our strategic transformation initiative decreased by $11.6 million in 2022 due to a decrease in retention and severance costs as well as related consulting costs. The remaining decrease in selling, general, and administrative expenses in 2022 is due to a $9.7 million decrease in amortization expense due to intangible assets sold in the divestitures in the prior year and a $8.8 million decrease in bonus and commission expenses. The decreases were partially offset by a $17.4 million increase in sales and marketing expenses due to more in-person sales and marketing events and travel-related expenses in 2022, a $7.6 million increase in wages and other compensation expenses, a $5.5 million increase in consulting expenses, and a $3.3 million increase in information and technology expenses.
Legal Charges Pending Settlement
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Legal charges pending settlement||$||— ||$||62.0 ||$||(62.0)|
|Legal charges pending settlement as a % of total revenue||— ||%||9.0 ||%|
Legal charges pending settlement decreased for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year due to $62.0 million of accruals related to potential legal settlements recorded in the prior year, including $48.0 million in connection with the qui tam lawsuit against Crescendo Bioscience, LLC and the Company and $14.0 million in connection with the Abelli lawsuit. These amounts were subsequently paid in connection with the settlement of these cases in April 2022 and January 2022, respectively. There were no corresponding legal charges pending settlement in the year ended December 31, 2022.
Goodwill and Long-lived Asset Impairment Charges
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges||$||16.9 ||$||1.8 ||$||15.1 |
|Goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges as a % of total revenue||2.5 ||%||0.3 ||%|
Goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges increased for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year primarily due to the Company recognizing a $13.0 million impairment to ROU assets and a $3.9 million impairment to the related leasehold improvements in the current year as a result our decision to no longer use certain leased facilities in order to consolidate space. During the prior period, the Company recognized a $1.8 million impairment to ROU assets as a result of the voluntary early termination of certain lease agreements.
Other Income (Expense)
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Interest income||$||2.6 ||$||0.7 ||$||1.9 |
|Interest expense||$||(3.2)||$||(6.6)||$||3.4 |
|Other||$||0.6 ||$||139.3 ||$||(138.7)|
|Other income (expense)||$||— ||$||133.4 ||$||(133.4)|
Other income (expense) decreased for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year due primarily to the $121.0 million net gain recognized on the sale of Myriad RBM, Inc. and the $31.2 million net gain recognized on the sale of the Myriad myPath, LLC laboratory in the prior period, partially offset by charges in the prior period, including losses of $5.2 million and $6.5 million for a non-cancelable purchase commitment and inventory, respectively, recognized in connection with certain divestiture transactions, as well as a $3.4 million decrease in interest expense in the current period. The interest expense in the prior period is related to the debt outstanding at that time, which was repaid in full on July 30, 2021. There was no debt outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Income Tax Benefit
|Years Ended December 31,||Change|
|Income tax benefit||$||(28.6)||$||(29.9)||$||1.3 |
|Effective tax rate||(20.3)||%||(52.3)||%|
Our tax rate is the product of a U.S. federal effective rate of 21.0% and a blended state income tax rate of approximately 3.4%. Certain significant or unusual items are separately recognized during the period in which they occur and can be a source of variability in the effective tax rates from period to period.
Income tax benefit for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $(28.6) million, and our effective tax rate was (20.3)%. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our effective tax rate differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to disallowed executive compensation expenses, stock compensation, change in valuation allowance, and research and development credits. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our effective tax rate differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to disallowed executive compensation expenses, differences between the book and tax basis of assets divested, the tax impact of the CARES Act, stock compensation, and release of a valuation allowance.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are our cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities, our cash flows from operations, and, in certain circumstances as discussed below, amounts available for borrowing under our Amended Facility. Our capital deployment strategy focuses on use of resources in the key areas of research and development, technology and acquisitions. We believe that investing organically through research and development and new product development or acquisitively to support our business strategy provides the best return on invested capital.
We believe that our existing capital resources will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements for the foreseeable future. In addition, our capital resources and cash on hand may be used for acquisitions or other strategic investments.
All previously outstanding borrowings under our Amended Facility, which matures on July 31, 2023, were repaid on July 30, 2021 using cash generated from divestitures and as such, we have no outstanding borrowings as of December 31, 2022.
Our available capital resources, however, may be consumed more rapidly than currently expected, or may be insufficient for our business needs for many reasons, including as a result of our operational cash needs, capital expenditures, and litigation related costs not covered by, or above the limits set forth in, our insurance. As a result, we may need or want to raise additional financing. We may not be able to secure such financing in a timely manner or on favorable terms, if at all. The current rising interest rate environment, together with recessionary headwinds, could make any potential financing more difficult or expensive to obtain. In addition, as of December 31, 2022, our borrowing limit under the Amended Facility has decreased to $150.0 million, and we remain subject to financial covenants under our Amended Facility, which could limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness under the Amended Facility or otherwise or impact our decision to pursue other financing. Without additional funds, we may be forced to delay the build-out of our new laboratories, scale back or eliminate some of our sales and marketing efforts, research and development activities, or other operations, or delay development of our tests in an effort to provide sufficient funds to continue our operations. If any of these events occurs, our ability to achieve our development and commercialization goals could be adversely affected.
The Amended Facility restricts our ability to make future borrowings if unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities exceed $150.0 million, unless such borrowings are in connection with certain permitted acquisitions. Unrestricted cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities totaled $169.7 million as of December 31, 2022. Our revolving commitment amount under the Amended Facility is $150.0 million as of December 31, 2022. As our total unrestricted cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities exceeded $150.0 million as of December 31, 2022, we are currently unable to make borrowings under the Amended Facility unless related to a permitted acquisition. In addition, we are subject to a minimum liquidity covenant, which requires us to maintain liquidity of $150.0 million. Liquidity is defined under the Amended Facility as the sum of our unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities plus the aggregate undrawn and available amount of the revolving commitments under the Amended Facility.
From time to time, we enter into purchase commitments or other agreements that may materially impact our liquidity position in future periods. In February 2022, we entered into a non-cancelable operating lease for approximately 230,000 square feet in west Salt Lake City, Utah. The lease has a term of 15 years, which, along with rent payments, is expected to commence in the third quarter of 2023. Total future rent payments under the lease are approximately $78.0 million. We also entered into a non-cancelable operating lease for approximately 63,000 square feet of leased space in South San Francisco, California. The lease has a term of 10 years and, along with rent payments, is expected to commence in the third quarter of 2023. Total future rent payments under the lease are approximately $58.8 million.
Because of the technical nature of our business and our focus on science, research, and development, we are highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified and experienced management, scientific, and technical personnel. Competition and increased compensation for such personnel and other qualified personnel have increased the difficulty and cost of hiring and retaining qualified personnel. Loss of the services of or failure to recruit additional key management, scientific, and technical personnel and other qualified personnel who are necessary to operate our business would adversely affect our business, and it may have a material adverse effect on our business as a whole. Additionally, disruptions to our supply chain could cause shortages of critical materials required to conduct our business, which may have a material adverse effect on our business as a whole. In addition, inflation has had, and we expect it will continue to have, an impact on the costs we incur to attract and retain qualified personnel, costs to generate sales and produce diagnostic testing results, and costs of lab supplies.
The following table represents the balances of cash, cash equivalents, and marketable investment securities as of December 31, 2022 and 2021:
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||56.9 ||$||257.4 |
|Marketable investment securities||58.0 ||81.4 |
|Long-term marketable investment securities||54.8 ||59.0 |
|Cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities||$||169.7 ||$||397.8 |
The decrease in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable investment securities as of December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021 was primarily driven by $106.3 million in cash used by operations, which included legal settlement payments of $62.0 million, as well as $57.2 million in cash used for our acquisition of Gateway, $45.3 million in cash used for capital expenditures, and $4.3 million in cash used for the payment of withholding tax in connection with the issuance of common stock, net of proceeds from the issuance of common stock. The Company also had restricted cash of $9.5 million and $1.4 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The following table represents the condensed cash flow statement:
|Years Ended December 31,|
|Cash flows provided by (used in) operating activities||$||(106.3)||$||18.6 |
|Cash flows provided by (used in) investing activities||(77.5)||274.4 |
|Cash flows used in financing activities||(8.0)||(150.6)|
|Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash||(0.6)||(0.6)|
|Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash||(192.4)||141.8 |
|Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the beginning of the period||258.8 ||117.0 |
|Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the end of the period||$||66.4 ||$||258.8 |
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
In the year ended December 31, 2022, the decrease in cash flows from operating activities was primarily due to the change in the balance of prepaid taxes due to the receipt of an $89.0 million U.S. federal tax refund in the prior year and an $81.2 million decrease in accrued liabilities during the current year, which was primarily driven by legal settlement payments of $62.0 million in 2022.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
In the year ended December 31, 2022, the decrease in cash flows provided by investing activities as compared to the prior year was primarily due to the receipt of $379.1 million in cash proceeds from divestitures in the prior year, with no corresponding proceeds in the current period and the acquisition of Gateway, net of cash acquired, for $57.2 million, partially offset by a $67.1 million increase in proceeds from marketable investment securities in the current period.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
In the year ended December 31, 2022, the decrease in cash flows used in financing activities as compared to the prior year was primarily due to the use of $226.4 million in cash for repayments of the outstanding debt balances under the Amended Facility during the prior year, partially offset by a decrease of $84.6 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options, net of shares exchanged for payroll withholding tax in the current year as compared to the prior year.
Effects of Inflation
Inflation has had, and may continue to have, an impact on the labor costs we incur to attract and retain qualified personnel, costs to generate sales and produce testing results, and costs of laboratory supplies. Inflationary costs have impacted our profitability and continue to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, increased inflation has had, and may continue to have, an effect on interest rates. Increased interest rates may adversely affect our borrowing rate and our ability to obtain, or the terms under which we can obtain, additional funding.
Share Repurchase Program
Our Board of Directors has previously authorized us to repurchase up to $200.0 million of our outstanding common stock. We may repurchase our common stock from time to time or on an accelerated basis through open market transactions or privately negotiated transactions as determined by our management. The amount and timing of stock repurchases under the program will depend on business and market conditions, stock price, trading restrictions, acquisition activity, and other factors. As of December 31, 2022, we are authorized to repurchase up to $110.7 million under our current share repurchase authorization. See “Part II, Item 5. Market For Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities – Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” above.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Critical accounting estimates are those policies which are both important to the portrayal of a company’s financial condition and results and require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Our critical accounting estimates are as follows:
•purchase accounting; and
Revenue Recognition. Revenue is recognized when, or as, performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs when control of the promised products or services is transferred to a customer. We exclude sales, use, value-added, and other taxes we collect on behalf of third parties from revenue. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products or services to a customer.
We generate revenue primarily by performing genetic testing. We perform our obligation under a contract with a customer by processing those tests and communicating the test results to customers, in exchange for consideration from the customer. Revenue from the sale of tests is recorded at the estimated transaction price. We have determined that the communication of test results indicates transfer of control for revenue recognition purposes. We have the right to bill our customers upon the completion of performance obligations and thus do not record contract assets. Occasionally customers make payments prior to our performance of our contractual obligations. When this occurs, we record a contract liability as deferred revenue.
Significant judgments are required in determining the transaction price in connection with satisfying performance obligations under the revenue standard. In determining the transaction price, we estimate the expected amount of consideration as revenue. We apply this method consistently for similar contracts when estimating the effect of any uncertainty on an amount of variable consideration to which we will be entitled. An estimate of transaction price does not include any estimated amount of variable consideration that is constrained. We consider all the information (historical, current, and forecast) that is reasonably available to identify possible consideration amounts. To determine our estimated transaction price, we apply the expected value method for sales where we have a large number of contracts with similar characteristics. We then consider the probability of the variable consideration for each possible scenario. We have significant experience with historical collection patterns and use this experience to estimate transaction prices.
The estimate of revenue is affected by assumptions in payor mix and in payor behavior such as changes in payor collections, current customer contractual requirements, and experience with ultimate collection from third-party payors. When assessing the total consideration for insurance carriers and patients, revenues are further constrained for estimated refunds. We reserve certain amounts in accrued liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets in anticipation of request for refunds of payments made previously by insurance carriers, which are accounted for as reductions in revenues in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
Goodwill. We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis and in the interim by reporting unit if events and circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired. The events and circumstances that are considered include business climate and market conditions, legal factors, operating performance indicators and competition. Impairment of goodwill is evaluated on a qualitative basis before calculating the fair value of the reporting unit. If the qualitative assessment suggests that impairment is more likely than not, a quantitative impairment analysis is performed. The quantitative analysis involves comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. The valuation of a reporting unit requires judgment in estimating future cash flows, discount rates, residual growth rates and other factors. In making these judgments, we evaluate the financial health of our business, including such factors as industry performance, market saturation and opportunity, changes in technology and operating cash flows, and other relevant entity-specific events. Changes in our forecasts or decreases in the value of our common stock could cause book value of reporting units to exceed their fair values. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. If an event occurs that would cause a revision to the estimates and assumptions used in analyzing the value of the goodwill, the revision could result in a non-cash impairment charge that could have a material impact on the financial results.
As of December 31, 2022, we have recorded goodwill of $286.8 million on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. This goodwill is attributable to the Myriad Mental Health, Myriad International, Myriad Women's Health, and Gateway reporting units. We qualitatively evaluated our reporting units for impairment. The factors that are considered in the qualitative analysis include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, revenue growth rates, current and financial performance, other factors that would have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, and other relevant entity-specific events and information. Significant judgment is required in assessing the weight of the qualitative factors. We noted no indicators of impairment during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Goodwill impairment testing requires us to make a number of assumptions and estimates concerning future levels of revenue growth, operating margins, and other financial assumptions, which are based upon our long-term plan. The discount rate is an estimate of the overall after-tax rate of return required by a market participant whose weighted average cost of capital includes both debt and equity, including a risk premium. While we use the best available information to prepare our cash flows and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows and/or market conditions could differ significantly resulting in future impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances. While there are always changes in assumptions to reflect changing business and market conditions, our overall methodology used has remained unchanged.
Purchase Accounting. We account for acquisitions of entities that include inputs and processes and have the ability to create outputs as business combinations. The tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded based on their estimated fair values as of the business combination date, including identifiable intangible assets which either arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from goodwill. Significant judgment is often required in estimating the fair value of assets acquired, particularly intangible assets. We base the estimated fair value of identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination on third-party valuations that use information and assumptions provided by our management, which consider our estimates of inputs and assumptions that a market participant would use. Any excess purchase price over the estimated fair value assigned to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded to goodwill. The use of alternative valuation assumptions, including estimated revenue projections, growth rates, estimated cost savings, cash flows, discount rates, estimated useful lives and probabilities surrounding the achievement of contingent milestones could result in different purchase price allocations and amortization expense in current and future periods.
In circumstances where an acquisition involves a contingent consideration arrangement that meets the definition of a liability under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 480 - Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, a liability is recognized equal to the fair value of the contingent payments we expect to make as of the acquisition date. This liability is remeasured each reporting period and changes in the fair value are recorded in change in fair value of contingent consideration in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes. Our income tax provision is based on income before taxes and is computed using the liability method in accordance with ASC 740 – Income Taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using tax rates projected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Significant estimates are required in determining our provision for income taxes. Some of these estimates are based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations, or the expected results from any future tax examinations. Various internal and external factors may have favorable or unfavorable effects on our future provision for income taxes. Those factors include, but are not limited to, changes in tax laws, regulations and/or rates, the results of any future tax examinations, changing interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations, changes in estimates of prior years’ items, past levels of research and development spending, acquisitions, changes in our corporate structure, and changes in overall levels of income before taxes all of which may result in periodic revisions to our provision for income taxes.
Developing our provision for income taxes, including our effective tax rate and analysis of potential uncertain tax positions, if any, requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities and any estimated valuation allowance we deem necessary to offset deferred tax assets. If we do not maintain taxable income from operations in future periods, we may increase the valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets and record material adjustments to our income tax expense. Our judgment and tax strategies are subject to audit by various taxing authorities. While we believe we have provided adequately for our uncertain income tax positions in our consolidated financial statements, an adverse determination by these taxing authorities could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Interest and penalties on income tax items are included as a component of overall income tax expense.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting pronouncements.
Item 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily relate to interest rates and foreign currency exchange risks.
We maintain an investment portfolio in accordance with our written investment policy. The primary objectives of our investment policy are to preserve principal, maintain proper liquidity to meet operating needs and maximize yields. Our investment policy specifies credit quality standards for our investments and limits the amount of credit exposure to any single issue, issuer or type of investment.
Our investments consist of debt securities of various types and maturities of five years or less, with an average maturity of 2.1 years. These securities are classified as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale securities are recorded on the balance sheet at fair market value with unrealized gains or losses reported as part of Accumulated other comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses on investment security transactions are reported on the specific-identification method. Dividend and interest income are recognized when earned. A decline in the market value of any available-for-sale security below cost that is deemed other-than-temporary results in a charge to earnings and establishes a new cost basis for the security.
Although our investment policy guidelines are intended to ensure the preservation of principal, market conditions can result in high levels of uncertainty. Our ability to trade or redeem the securities in which we invest, including certain corporate bonds, may become difficult. Valuation and pricing of these securities can also become variable and subject to uncertainty. As of December 31, 2022, we had $2.7 million in unrealized losses in our investment portfolio. We do not utilize derivative financial instruments to manage our interest rate risks.
We may be exposed to fluctuations in foreign currencies with regard to certain agreements with service providers. While our expenses are predominantly denominated in U.S. dollars, approximately 10% of our revenues are denominated in other currencies, primarily in Japanese yen. A hypothetical 10% change in the value of the Japanese yen relative to the U.S. dollar would result in a 1% change in our revenues. Although we also have certain operations denominated in Euros, Swiss francs, and British pounds, among other currencies, those operations are subject to less overall market risk due to the revenue and expenses being denominated in the same currency. During the year ended December 31, 2022, our revenues were negatively impacted by approximately $10.4 million due to foreign currency fluctuations. We do not currently utilize hedging strategies to mitigate foreign currency risk.
Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
MYRIAD GENETICS, INC.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Myriad Genetics, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Myriad Genetics, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the six month period ended December 31, 2020 and the year in the period ended June 30, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the six month period ended December 31, 2020 and the year in the period ended June 30, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated March 1, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
|Measurement of testing revenue|
|Description of the Matter|
During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company’s testing revenue was $678.4 million. As discussed in Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements, management estimates the expected amount of consideration to be received as testing revenue and revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is complete.
Auditing the measurement of the Company’s testing revenue was complex and judgmental due to the significant estimation required in determining the amount that will be collected for each test. In particular, the estimate of revenue is affected by assumptions related to payors such as changes in payor mix, payor collections, current customer contractual requirements, and experience with ultimate collection from third-party payors.
|How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit|
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s revenue recognition process. For example, we tested controls over management’s review of the significant assumptions above and inputs used in calculating the estimated amount that would be collected for each test and tested management’s controls to compare actual payments received to previously forecasted activity. We also tested controls used by management to compare the current and historical data used in making the estimates for completeness and accuracy.
Our audit procedures over the Company’s testing revenue included, among others, assessing valuation methodologies and models and testing the significant assumptions above and the underlying data used by the Company in its analysis. We agreed transactions selected for testing back to the actual customer contract terms. We compared the significant assumptions above and inputs used by management to changes in the Company’s contracted rates, third-party payor collection trends, and other relevant factors. We assessed the historical accuracy of the cash collections used in the Company’s revenue models, and assessed the completeness of adjustments to estimates of future cash collections as a result of significant contract amendments, changes in collection trends and changes in payor behavior.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2006.
Salt Lake City, UT
March 1, 2023
MYRIAD GENETICS, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except per share amounts)
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||56.9 ||$||257.4 |
|Marketable investment securities||58.0 ||81.4 |
|Trade accounts receivable||101.6 ||91.3 |
|Inventory||20.1 ||15.3 |
|Prepaid taxes||17.6 ||18.4 |
|Prepaid expenses and other current assets||20.4 ||21.0 |
|Total current assets||274.6 ||484.8 |
|Operating lease right-of-use assets||103.9 ||81.8 |
|Long-term marketable investment securities||54.8 ||59.0 |
|Property, plant and equipment, net||83.4 ||43.5 |
|Intangibles, net||379.7 ||404.1 |
|Goodwill||286.8 ||239.2 |
|Other assets||15.5 ||8.3 |
|Total assets||$||1,198.7 ||$||1,320.7 |
|LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY|
|Accounts payable||$||28.8 ||$||29.6 |
|Accrued liabilities||94.3 ||161.7 |
|Current maturities of operating lease liabilities||14.1 ||13.0 |
|Total current liabilities||137.2 ||204.3 |
|Unrecognized tax benefits||26.8 ||27.9 |
|Long-term deferred taxes||3.5 ||35.8 |
|Noncurrent operating lease liabilities||130.9 ||79.3 |
|Other long-term liabilities||14.5 ||5.6 |
|Total liabilities||312.9 ||352.9 |
|Commitments and contingencies|
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 81.2 and 80.0 shares outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively
|0.8 ||0.8 |
|Additional paid-in capital||1,260.1 ||1,226.3 |
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(8.9)||(5.1)|
|Total Myriad Genetics, Inc. stockholders' equity||885.8 ||967.8 |
|Non-controlling interest||— ||— |
|Total stockholders' equity||885.8 ||967.8 |
|Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity||$||1,198.7 ||$||1,320.7 |
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
MYRIAD GENETICS, INC.